Spirit of America Bookstore

U.S. & Canada World War II
Internment Camps

April 1942 photograph of the empty main street at Manzanar Internment Camp in Inyo County, California          short history & timeline

a few important people

non-fiction books
general books
personal accounts

fiction books

internment art

plays, movies, other media

the camps


         April 1942 'Civilian Exclusion Order No. 5' for San Francisco, California (page 1)

          short history
          t e x t
          h e r e

Important  Dates  of the  World  War  II  Internments
  • 1913 May 19: California Gov. Hiram Johnson signed the Webb-Hartley Law, which prohibited 'aliens ineligible to citizenship' from owning farm land (targeting Asians, especially Japanese).

  • 1941 December 7: Japanese navy and air forces attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawai'i - 'A Day That Shall Live In Infamy'.
  • 1941 Dec 8: Both the United States and Canada declared war on Japan.
  • 1942 Jan 29: Canada declared a 'protected area' in British Columbia, based on the War Measures Act of August 1914.
  • 1942 Feb 19: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order #9066 giving the military the authority to relocate and intern Japanese-Americans and Japanese nationals living in the U.S.; German-Americans and German nationals were rounded up and relocated from the East Coast, as well as over 10,000 Italian-Americans and Italian nationals.
  • 1942 March 4: Canada ordered evacuation of Japanese-Canadians from the Protected Area in British Columbia; 12,000 were interned, 2,000 were sent to road camps, and 2,000 were forced to work on sugar beet farms 'in the prairie provinces'.
  • 1942 March 18: President Roosevelt signed Executive Order #9102 authorizing the War Relocation Authority.
  • 1942 March 23: Federal troops began evacuating over 110,000 Japanese-Americans from their West Coast homes to detention centers farther inland, including Manzanar in the California desert, Granada in Colorado, Heart Mountain in Wyoming, Topaz Center at Delta in Utah, and the Gila River Reservation in Arizona.
  • Canada also rounded up their many West Coast Japanese, putting 22,000 into internment camps.
  • 1944 Dec 17: The U.S. Army announced that it was ending exclusion of Japanese-Americans from the West Coast.
  • 1944 Dec 18: The U.S. Supreme Court issued two rulings: the wartime relocation of Japanese-Americans (and others) was declared constitutional, while detainment of undeniably-loyal Americans of foreign ancestry could not continue.
  • At the end of the war, the U.S. had 500 P.O.W. camps housing 400,000 enemy soldiers.
  • 1959 May 20: Nearly 5,000 Japanese-Americans had their U.S. citizenship restored after renouncing during World War II.
  • 2006 Dec 21: President George W. Bush signed H.R. 1492 into law, which guaranteed $38 million in federal money to restore ten former World War II internment camps.

A Few Important People

1/2017 Google Doodle honoring Fred Korematsu          banner ad for Fred Korematsu Day 2015
Fred Korematsu [1919-2005] challenged the legality of Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066; he lost that case and was sentenced
to five years probation, but was vindicated forty years later. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Bill Clinton in 1998.
Fred T. Korematsu Institute for Civil Rights and Education [est. 2009] • Fred Korematsu Day
IMDb listing • Fred Korematsu entry at Wikipedia

Fred Korematsu 2000 biopic  "Civil Wrongs and Rights: The Fred Korematsu Story" [Pushtan Prodns July 2000]
Written & directed by Eric Paul Fournier; featuring Fred Korematsu, Rosa Parks, Bill Clinton;
won 2 News & Documentary Emmy Awards
Docurama color DVD [3/2007] out of prodn/SOLD OUT!
credits at IMDb • official movie website
watch official TV promo [0:20] online at YouTube

Franklin D. Roosevelt [1882-1945]

"I spent my boyhood behind the barbed wire fences of American internment camps
and that part of my life is something that I wanted to share with more people."

"Yes, I remember the barbed wire and the guard towers and the machine guns, but they became part
of my normal landscape. What would be abnormal in normal times became my normality in camp."

"But when we came out of camp, that's when I first realized that being in camp,
that being Japanese-American, was something shameful."

— actor George Takei [b. 1937]

George Takei's TED Talk at TED Kyoto in June 2014 [15:58]

OpEd by George Takei 18 Nov 2016: "They interned my family. Don’t let them do it to Muslims."

Non-Fiction Books - General

America's Concentration Camps book by Allan R. Bosworth  America's Concentration Camps book by Allan R. Bosworth  "America's Concentration Camps" [1967]
by Allan R. Bosworth

Cover text: "110,000 Americans imprisoned behind barbed wire in the United States.
How did it happen? Why? Here is the complete shocking true story."

W.W. Norton & Co. pb [2/67] out of print/used
W.W. Norton & Co. 9x6½ hardcover [2/67] out of print/40+ used
W.W. Norton & Co. 9x6½ hardcover [2/67] out of print/used
white cover for Concentration Camps USA book by Roger Daniels  blue cover for Concentration Camps USA book by Roger Daniels  "Concentration Camps USA: Japanese Americans and World War II" [1971]
by Roger Daniels

Holt, Rinehart & Winston 9x6 pb [2/80] out of print/many used
Holt, Rinehart & Winston 8¾x5¾ pb [1971] out of print/used
Henry Holt & Co. 9x5¾ hardcover [5/72] out of print/used
original Personal Justice Denied report by C.W.R.I.C.  reprint Personal Justice Denied report by C.W.R.I.C.  "Personal Justice Denied, The Report of The Commission On Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians" [1982-83]
A thorough account of the relocation; originally published as 2-volume set in 1982 and 1983;
the 1997 edition has a Foreword by Tetsuden Kashima

Univ Washington Press 9x6 pb [2/97] for $27.05

Oral History of the Japanese American Detention Camps book by John Tateishi  "And Justice for All: An Oral History of The Japanese-American Detention Camps" [1984] by John Tateishi, Foreword by Roger Daniels
Author presents the history of thirty internees, in their own words.
Univ Washington Press 9x6 pb [3/99] for $25.00
Univ Washington Press 9¼x6 library hardcover [6/2008] for $28.95
Random House 9¼x6¼ hardcover [1984] out of print/50+ used
Behind Barbed Wire German POW Camps in Minnesota book by Anita Buck  "Behind Barbed Wire: German Prisoner of War Camps In Minnesota During World War II" [1998]
by Anita Albrecht Buck

North Star Press of St. Cloud 8¾x5¾ pb [6/98] for $14.95
UnCivil Liberties / World War Two internment  "UnCivil Liberties: Italian Americans Under Siege During World War II"
[rev 2000, orig 1990] by Stephen Fox

Universal Publrs 8¼x5½ pb [2/2000] for $29.95
Encyclopedia of Prisoners of War & Internment book edited by Jonathan F. Vance  "Encyclopedia of Prisoners of War and Internment" [2000]
Edited by Jonathan F. Vance

The first edition has almost 300 signed entries, with scattered illustrations; second edition has 350 signed entries, more illustrations, plus 10-page bibliography and 16 pages of color maps.
734-page Grey House Publng 2nd edition hardcover [4/2006] for $147.25 {sic}
408-page ABC-Clio 10¼x7¼ library hardcover [9/2000] for $7.03 {sic}
Behind Barbed Wire / Japanese-American Internment book by Lila Perl  "Behind Barbed Wire: The Story of Japanese-American Internment During World War II" [age 4-8; 2002] by Lila Perl
Benchmark Books 9¾x8½ library hardcover [9/2002] for $37.07
Guests Behind the Barbed Wire / German POWs In America book by Ruth Beaumont Cook  "Guests Behind The Barbed Wire: German POWs In America - A True Story of Hope & Friendship" [2007] by Ruth Beaumont Cook
Crane Hill Publrs 7½x5¼ hardcover [4/2007] out of print/used
Encyclopedia of Japanese American Internment book edited by Gary Y. Okihiro  "Encyclopedia of Japanese American Internment" [2013]
Edited by Gary Y. Okihiro

Greenwood 10x7¼ hardcover [6/2013] for $84.48
Imprisoned / Betrayal of Japanese Americans book by Martin W. Sandler  "Imprisoned: The Betrayal of Japanese Americans During World War II"
[ages 10 & up; 2013] by Martin W. Sandler

Walker Childrens 10½x8½ hardcover [8/2013] for $16.55
Walker Childrens 10½x8½ library hardcover [8/2013] for $21.50
Nebraska POW Camps book by Melissa Amateis Marsh  "Nebraska P.O.W. Camps: A History of World War II Prisoners In The Heartland" [2014] by Melissa Amateis Marsh
Kindle Edition from History Press [4/2014] for $9.99
History Press 9X6 pb [4/2014] for $16.57
'Personal Justice Denied / The Rest of the 9066 Story' in Kindle format by Jim Cain  "Personal Justice Denied: The Rest of The 9066 Story" for Kindle [2015]
by Jim Cain

Author examines the 1982 C.W.R.I.C. report and other documents and takes the minority view that World War II internees in America were treated just fine, including the many who went to East Coast colleges at taxpayer expense.
Kindle Edition from Amazon Digital Services [2/2015] for $6.99
Infamy / Japanese American Internment book by Richard Reeves  "Infamy: The Shocking Story of The Japanese-American Internment In World War II" [2015] by {journalist} Richard Reeves
Kindle Edition from Henry Holt/Macmillan [4/2015] for $16.99
Henry Holt & Co. 9½x6½ hardcover [4/2015] for $23.03


Non-Fiction Books - Personal Accounts

Farewell To Manzanar memoir  "Farewell To Manzanar: A True Story of Japanese American Experience During & After The World War II Internment" [1972]
by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston & James D. Houston

Laurel Leaf mass pb [3/83] for $6.99
Houghton Mifflin 8¾x6 hardcover [4/2002] for $11.25
official book site • see 1976 TV movie below
Desert Exile autobiography by Yoshiko Uchida  "Desert Exile: The Uprooting of A Japanese American Family" [1982]
by Yoshiko Uchida, new Introduction by Traise Yamamoto

Kindle Edition from Univ Washington Press [10/2015] for $9.99
Univ Washington Press 8½x6¼ pb [6/82] for $14.56
Univ Washington Press 8½x6¼ hardcover [6/82] out of print/used
From Our Side of The Fence book edited by Brian Komei Dempster  "From Our Side of The Fence: Growing Up In America's Concentration Camps"
[2001] Edited by Brian Komei Dempster

Award-winning anthology of essays by eleven Japanese-Americans who were children inside six of the ten major U.S. WWII internment camps; from a San Francisco writing workshop led by the editor.
Kearney Street Workshop Press 9x6 pb [4/2001] out of print/used
publisher's book page
Ringo-en: Manzanar book by Tadashi Kishi  "Ringo-en: My Internment At Manzanar" [2010] by Tadashi Kishi
The author was born in Culver City, California and raised in nearby Santa Monica. His draft status was 1A in December 1941, but the government reclassified him to 4C {enemy alien} and relocated him and others to the camp at Manzanar. He finished his degree there and taught math & physics to the children of the camp, then served in the U.S. Army as a translator in Occupied Japan. His later career was in highly-classified mainframe computer development at Los Alamos Labs in New Mexico and at the Livermore Labs in California, which included work with A.R.P.A., the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility, and the Laser Project. This book describes the unresolved issues that he was still dealing with sixty years after release from Manzanar.
CreateSpace 9x6 pb [1/2010] for $10.99

Stories of Japanese American Exile & Resettlement book edited by Brian Komei Dempster  "Making Home From War: Stories of Japanese American Exile and Resettlement"
[2010] Edited by Brian Komei Dempster

Long-awaited sequel to the award-winning "From Our Side of The Fence" [2001]; this book ia a report from nine aging Japanese-American internees about their many difficulties after being released from America's WWII internment camps; includes 40 b&w photographs.
Heyday Books 9x6 pb [11/2010] for $14.78
publisher's book page
Looking After Minidoka memoir by Neil Nakadate  "Looking After Minidoka: An American Memoir" [2013]
by Neil Nakadate

Kindle Edition from Indiana Univ Press [10/2013] for $9.99
Indiana Univ Press 9x6 pb [10/2013] for $15.10
Write to Me / Letters from Japanese American Children book by Cynthia Grady & Amiko Hirao  "Write To Me: Letters From Japanese American Children To The Librarian They Left Behind" [ages 4-8; 2018] by Cynthia Grady, Illustrated by Amiko Hirao
Having developed strong relationships with the Japanese-American children in her San Diego, California neighborhood, a librarian asked them to write to her from the internment camps that they were being sent to in early 1942.
Kindle Edition from Charlesbridge/Penguin Random House [1/2018] for $9.99
Charlesbridge 10¼x8½ hardcover [1/2018] for $12.14

"I Call To Remembrance: Toyo Suyemoto's Years of Internment" [7/2007] Edited by Susan Richardson
"Kiyo's Story: A Japanese-American Family's Quest For The American Dream" [12/2010] by Kiyo Sato

Fiction Books

Journey To Topaz novel by Yoshiko Uchida  "Journey To Topaz: A Story of The Japanese-American Evacuation"
[ages 9 & up; 1971 classic] by Yoshiko Uchida

Young reader fiction based on the author's experiences at the Topaz Internment Camp in Utah; 2004 edition illustrated by Donald Carrick.
Heyday Books 8x5½ pb [10/2004] for $8.96
Scribner's 8x5½ hardcover [1971] out of print/many used
Journey Home novel for young readers by Yoshiko Uchida  "Journey Home" [ages 10 & up; 1978] by Yoshiko Uchida
After release from a World War II internment camp, a Japanese-American family struggles to reconstruct their lives in Berkeley, California.
Aladdin Books 7½x5 pb [10/92] for $5.64
Margaret K. McElderry Books 8½x5½ hardcover [9/78] out of print/used
Tule Lake internment novel by Edward T. Miyakawa  "Tule Lake: A Novel" [1979] by Edward T. Miyakawa
The story of Japanese-Americans who refused to cooperate . . .
CreateSpace 8½x5½ pb [7/2006] for $24.24
House By the Sea Publng pb [1979] out of print/used
Black Dragon mystery novel by Kirk Mitchell  "Black Dragon" [1988 novel] by Kirk Mitchell
A civilian homicide detective joins forces with the Manzanar internment camp's Japanese internal police chief to investigate the decapitation murder of the camp director and the suicide of an internee.
Dell mass pb [10/89] out of print/used
St. Martin's Press 9¼x6 hardcover [6/88] out of print/used
Snow Falling On Cedars novel by David Guterson  "Snow Falling On Cedars: A Novel" [1994] by David Guterson
A courtroom drama set in postwar Puget Sound of Washington State; a local journalist covers the murder trial of a high school classmate; the defendent is a Japanese-American fisherman who married the woman that the journalist still loves; made into a 1999 feature film (see below}
Vintage 8¼x5 pb [9/95] for $8.25
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 9¼x6¼ hardcover [9/94] for $16.50
Ben Uchida Citizen #13559 novel by Barry Denenberg  "The Journal of Ben Uchida, Citizen 13559, Mirror Lake Internment Camp, California 1942" [1999] by Barry Denenberg
Part of Scholastic's 'My Name Is America' fiction series; performed as a play in 2006 {see below}; the journal of a 12-year-old boy during his family's internment in California.
Scholastic 7½x5½ hardcover [9/99] out of print/many used
Scholastic 7¾x5½ hardcover [11/2003] out of print/used
Nothing To Regret novel by Tristi Pinkston  "Nothing To Regret: A Historical Novel" [2002] by Tristi Pinkston
After the Pearl Harbor attack, a Japanese-American college student and his family are uprooted from California to Topaz Internment Camp in the desert of Utah.
Granite Publng 9x6 pb [11/2002] out of print/used
author's official website
Killer Smile mystery novel by Lisa Scottoline  "Killer Smile" [2004] by Lisa Scottoline
An all-female Philadelphia law firm takes the pro bono case of an Italian-American family seeking reparations for the internment of a relative during the hysteria of World War II; the official reports say that the man died by suicide, but facts soon suggest that he was killed at the hands of another Italian-American family.
HarperTorch mass pb [6/2005] for $7.99
HarperCollins 9x6 hardcover [6/] out of print/hundreds used
author's official website
Tallgrass novel by Sandra Dallas  "Tallgrass: A Novel" [2007] by Sandra Dallas
At the start of World War II, a young girl's life is turned upside-down when the government builds an internment camp near her family's farm in Colorado; when a young neighbor girl is murdered, the small town is further changed forever.
St. Martin's Griffin pb [2/2008] for $10.07
St. Martin's Press 9x5½ hardcover [4/2007] for $16.29
author's official website
Desert Run mystery novel by Betty Webb  "Desert Run: A Lena Jones Mystery" [2008] by Betty Webb
While Scottsdale, Arizona private eye Lena Jones is working security for a documentary film about a World War II P.O.W. camp and the escape of several inmates on Christmas Day 1944, someone murders the 91-year-old technical advisor, a former German U-boat commander and one of the escapees.
Poisoned Pen Press 8¼x5¼ pb [2/2008] for $11.66
Mystery At Manzanar graphic YA novel by Eric Fein & Kurt Hartman  "Mystery At Manzanar: A WWII Internment Camp Story" graphic novel
[age 9-12; 2008] by Eric Fein, Illustrated by Kurt Hartman

Stone Arch Books 8x5½ pb [9/2008] for $5.95
Stone Arch Books 8½x5¾ library hardcover [9/2008] for $23.93
Hotel On The Corner of Bitter and Sweet novel by Jamie Ford  "Hotel On The Corner of Bitter and Sweet" [New York Times bestseller 2009]
by Jamie Ford

Two alternating narratives: An elderly Chinese widower in Seattle discovers a cache of memorabilia from World War II, when his 12-year-old self fell in love with a Japanese girl before she was shipped out to an internment camp with her family.
Ballantine Books 8x5¼ pb [10/2009] for $10.20
Ballantine Books hardcover [1/2009] for $17.88
Doll In The Red Kimono Kindle ebook by Jan Morrill  "Doll In The Red Kimono: A Collection of Essays" [2012]
by Jan Morrill

Non-fiction ebook companion to Morrill's novel, just below; over sixty essays from her blogs about family history, the challenges of writing and then of publishing – although the characters in "The Red Kimono" are fictitious, 'they are based on seeds of truth'.
Kindle Edition from Amazon Digital Services [9/2012] for 99ข {sic}
The Red Kimono novel by Jan Morrill  "The Red Kimono: A Novel" [2013] by Jan Morrill
Follows the lives of three teenagers in Berkeley, California after the attack on Pearl Harbor – one is sent to prison and the other two are sent to an internment camp in Arkansas.
Univ Arkansas Press hardcover [2/2013] for $19.77
author's book blog
Japanese Roses / Japanese American Internment novel by Theresa Lorella  "Japanese Roses: A Novel of The Japanese-American Internment" [2013]
by Theresa Lorella

The Miramoto family is torn apart by the attack at Pearl Harbor. Kimiko must survive alone inside Japan; Maggie is rounded up and sent to an internment camp; Akio and his Caucasian wife are sent to a different camp.
Kindle Edition from Amazon Digital Services [11/2013] for $2.99 {sic}
CreateSpace 9x6 pb [7/2013] for $9.81
Allegiance novel by Kermit Roosevelt  "Allegiance: A Novel" [2015] by Kermit Roosevelt III
A legal thriller involving an internment camp in California: two young lawyers are hired to clerk for Justice Hugo Black and assigned to investigate a case of government corruption; when one dies mysteriously, the other shifts into high gear . . .
Kindle Edition from Regan Arts/Simon & Schuster Digital Sales [8/2015] for $14.99
Regan Arts 9x6 hardcover [8/2015] for $13.84
The Diplomat's Daughter novel by Karin Tanabe  "The Diplomat's Daughter: A Novel" [2017] by Karin Tanabe
Only the first part of this World War II novel takes place at an internment camp, then events move on from there. After Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, the wife and daughter of a Japanese diplomat are sent to a camp in Texas, where the girl meets a German-American who falls in love with her. Wife and daughter are returned to Japan, and the boy enlists in the U.S. Army, volunteering to fight in the Pacific. Another young man who loves the girl is confined to the Jewish ghetto in Shanghai, under rule of the Japanese. We know how the war ends, but the dramatic tension of the story derives from the unknown fates of the three young people.
Kindle Edition from Washington Square Press/Simon and Schuster Digital Sales [7/2017] for $7.99
Washington Square Press 8¼x5¼ pb [7/2017] for $10.87

Internment  Art  &  Photographs

    Oscar-winning "Days of Waiting" documentary short film  "Days of Waiting" documentary short [indep 1988]
Artist Estelle Peck Ishigo was one of the few Caucasians to be interned with 110,000 Japanese-Americans in 1942; she refused to be separated from her Japanese-American husband and lived with him for four years behind barbed wire at Heart Mountain Camp in Wyoming. During that time she recorded the rigors and deprivations of camp life in sketches and watercolors that form a moving portrait of the lives of the internees – the struggle to keep their health, dignity, and hope alive.
From the Center for Asian American Media; co-produced, written & directed by Steven Okazaki; featuring Estelle Peck Ishigo; won Oscar for Best Documentary Short, won Peabody Award
Farallon Films color DVD [2000] out of prodn/SOLD OUT!
credits at IMDb • movie entry at Wikipedia • official movie site
watch official trailer/clip [8/2011 upload; 1:02] online at YouTube
Lone Heart Mountain novel by Estelle Ishigo  
"Lone Heart Mountain: A Novel" [1972]
by Estelle Peck Ishigo

self-publd pb [1972] out of print/used

Minidoka Revisited, Paintings of Roger Shimomura book by William W. Lew  "Minidoka Revisited: The Paintings of Roger Shimomura" [2005]
by William W. Lew

Univ WA Press 7¾x9 pb [12/2005] out of print/used
Roger Shimomura entry at Wikipedia • Roger Shimomura official erbsite
Ansel Adams at Manzanar photography book by Anne Hammond  "Ansel Adams At Manzanar" [2006]
by Anne Hammond

Honolulu Academy of Arts pb [2006] out of print/scarce
Honolulu Academy of Arts 9¼x7½ hardcover [2006] out of print/used
Dorothea Lange Images of Japanese American Internment photography book edited by Linda Gordon & Gary Y. Okihiro  "Impounded: Dorothea Lange and The Censored Images of Japanese American Internment" [2006] Edited by Linda Gordon & Gary Y. Okihiro
W.W. Norton 11x7 pb [2/2008] for $14.90
W.W. Norton 9¼x7¼ hardcover [11/2006] for $22.47
Placing Memory Photographic Exploration book by Todd Stewart  "Placing Memory: A Photographic Exploration of Japanese American Internment" [2008] From Charles M. Russell Center; photographs by Todd Stewart, essays by Karen Leong, Natasha Egan & John Tateishi
Univ OK Press 9x12½ hardcover [11/2008] for $26.56
Moving Images / Japanese-American Incarceration photography book by Jasmine Alinder  
"Moving Images: Photography and The Japanese American Incarceration"
[2009] by Jasmine Alinder

examples include works of Dorothea Lange, Ansel Adams, Manzanar camp inmate Toyo Miyatake, and artists Patrick Nagatani & Masumi Hayashi
Univ IL Press 9x6 hardcover [1/2009] for $32.58
Colors of Confinement / Photographs of Japanese American Incarceration book by Bill Manbo & Eric L. Muller  "Colors of Confinement: Rare Kodachrome Photographs of Japanese American Incarceration In World War II" [2012]
by Eric L. Muller, Photographs by Bill Manbo [1908-92]

65 splendid color photographs of the Heart Mountain camp, with three scholarly essays and an essay by a fellow internee
Kindle Textbook from Univ NC Press [8/2012] for $19.49
Univ NC Press 9¼x10¼ hardcover [8/2012] for $25.37

Minidoka, An American Concentration Camp book by Teresa Tamura  "Minidoka: An American Concentration Camp" [2013]
by photographer Teresa Tamura

180 black-and-white photographs, supplemented by essays & interviews
Caxton Press 9x10¾ hardcover [7/2013] for $22.30


Stageplays, Movies, Other Media
list of documentary films about the Japanese-American internment on Wikipedia

"Go for Broke!" feature film [M.G.M./Loew's May 1951]
red poster for "Go for Broke!" 1951 war movie  The lieutenant assigned to lead Japanese-American soldiers of the 442nd Infantry Regiment is prejudiced (normal for the times), but the tenacity and heroism of the men gradually wins him over • Written & directed by Robert Pirosh; starring Van Johnson, Lane Nakano, George Miki, Akira Fukunaga, Ken K. Oka-moto, Henry Oyasato, Harry Hamada, Henry Nakamura, Warner Anderson, Don Haggerty, Gianna Maria Canale, Dan Riss 'and the heroes of the 442nd Combat Team'; Oscar nomination for Best Script
copyrights lapsed, this film is now public domain • full credits at IMDb • movie entry at Wikipedia
Alpha Video b&w DVD [3/2005] for $7.06
V.C.I. Video b&w DVD [1/2002] out of prodn/used
also available on the DVD for 1987 "Beyond Barbed Wire" docufilm {see below}
M.G.M./Warner b&w VHS [9/98] out of prodn/used
27"x40" red poster {as at left} from Amazon for $8.49

"Hell To Eternity" [Allied Artists Sept 1960]
Hell To Eternity paperback  True life story of Guy Gabaldon [1926-2006], a Hispanic boy raised in Los Angeles by a Japanese-American foster family. During World War II, his foster parents were sent to an internment camp, and he enlisted in the U.S. Marines. His ability to speak Japanese was useful during the bloody capture of the island of Saipan: he convinced 1,500 Japanese soldiers & civilians to surrender after their general committed suicide. Gabaldon was awarded the Navy Cross & the Congressional Medal of Honor • Directed by Phil Karlson; starring Jeffrey Hunter (as PFC Gabaldon), David Janssen, Vic Damone, Patricia Owens, Sessue Hayakawa & Miiko Taka
Warner Home Video b&w DVD [6/2007] for $15.99
Fox b&w VHS [11/91] out of prodn/used
full credits at IMDb • Guy Gabaldon entry at Wikipedia
novelization by Edward S. Aarons
Fawcett Gold Medal mass pb [1960] out of print

"Farewell To Manzanar" TV movie
[Universal/NBC-TV March 1976]
cover of the 1972 book "Farewell To Manzanar", made into 1976 TV movie  2-hour fact-based drama about internees at the wartime internment camp at Manzanar, in the California desert; based on the 1972 book {see above} • Co-produced, co-written & directed by John Korty; co-written by Jeanne & James D. Houston; narrated by Greta Chi; starring Yuki Shimoda, Nobu McCarthy, Pat Morita, Mako, Akemi Kikumura, Clyde Kusatsu, James Saito & Momo Yashima
DVD/Blu-ray not available • full credits at IMDb • book entry at Wikipedia

"Unfinished Business: The Japanese-American Internment Cases"
[indep March 1986]
Oscar-nominated "Unfinished Business" documentary film  After President Roosevelt ordered the internment of Japanese-, German-, and Italian-American citizens, three young men were convicted of violating the internment laws; the U.S. Supreme Court upheld their convictions, and they served jail time. Forty years later, the three filed suits to have their sentences overturned. • Hour-long documentary film co-produced, co-written & directed by Steven Okazaki; narrated by Amy Hill; featuring defendents Gordon Hirabayashi, a Quaker college student in Washington; Fred Korematsu, a Bay Area welder; and Min Yasui, an attorney from Oregon; Oscar nomination for Best Documentary Feature
New Video Group color/b&w DVD [12/2005] for $17.99
full credits at IMDb • official movie site

"Come See The Paradise" [Fox Dec 1990]
Come See the Paradise movie  An American union organizer falls in love with a Japanese girl in pre-war Los Angeles, and they escape local prejudice by eloping to Seattle; but soon after Pearl Harbor, all Japanese on the West Coast are herded into concentration camps, and the young man is drafted • Written & directed by Alan Parker; starring Dennis Quaid, Tamlyn Tomita, Sab Shimono, Shizuko Hoshi, Colm Meaney & Becky Ann Baker
Fox widescreen color DVD [6/2006] for $12.99
Fox color VHS [3/92] out of prodn/many used
Varese Sarabande soundtrack CD [12/90] out of prodn/used
full credits from IMDb

"Beyond Barbed Wire" [indep 1987]
Beyond Barbed Wire documentary film by Steve Rosen  88-minute documentary film about the Japanese-American soldiers who fought heroically in Europe in the
442nd Infantry Regiment while their friends & families were confined to internment camps back in America
• Written & directed by Steve Rosen; narrated by Noriyuki 'Pat' Morita
V.C.I. Video color/b&w DVD [8/2001] out of prodn/used
extras on the DVD include "Go For Broke!" feature film [1951] {as above},
trailers, shorts & filmmaker bios

"Rabbit In The Moon" [P.B.S./POV July 1999]
filmmaker Emiko Omori in front of poster for 'Rabbit in the Moon' 1999 documentary film  An evocative, haunting work about surviving the so-called 'War Relocation Camps' that forcibly held more than 110,000 Japanese-Americans and Japanese nationals during World War II. Chizuko Omori and her sister Emiko Omori and their family were interned at the Poston Camp north of Yuma, Arizona during World War II. Fifty years later, filmmaker Emiko interviewed her sister and others about their experiences at the camps and the lasting effects in their lives • Co-produced by Chizuko Omori & Emiko Omori; written, directed & narrated by Emiko Omori; film won awards at Sundance Film Festival & Newport Intl. Film Festival, and from National Educational Media Network
indep DVD [2000] for $29.95 via Amazon third party
indep VHS [2000] out of prodn/used
full credits at IMDb • P.B.S. official movie site • watch official trailer [0:28] at PBS

"Snow Falling On Cedars" [M.C.A./Universal Dec 1999]
Snow Falling on Cedars 1999 movie  Before World War II, an American boy and a Japanese girl defy prejudice in their small Washington State island community and see each other secretly; their tentative love is thwarted when her family is rounded up to an internment camp and the boy is drafted into the Army. After the war, racial tension remains high; the girl married a local fisherman in the camp, and the young veteran returns home to take over his father's newspaper • Co-written & directed by Scott Hicks; co-produced & co-written by Ronald Bass, based on the 1994 novel {see above}; starring Ethan Hawke, Youki Kudoh, Rick Yune, Max von Sydow, Sam Shepard & James Cromwell
Universal Studios widescreen color DVD [5/2000] for $13.49
Universal Studios widescreen color VHS [5/2000] out of prodn/many used
27"x40" poster {as at left} from Amazon for $8.49
full credits at IMDb • official movie site • movie entry at Wikipedia
watch official trailer [1/2012 upload; 2:25] online at YouTube

"Prisoners In Paradise" docufilm [P.B.S. March 2002]
Prisoners In Paradise docufilm about WWII Italian prisoners of war  During World War II, 51,000 Italian P.O.W.s were brought to internment camps
located in Texas, Arizona, Wyoming, and Hawaii
• a film by Camilla Calamandrei
Region 1 DVD available only by license at filmmaker website
be not confused by Amazon's irrelevant porn videos with similar titles
color/b&w VHS [2002] out of prodn/used
bare credits at IMDb • official movie website
watch official trailer [upload 5/2010; 1:17] online at YouTube

"The Good War" aka "Texas 46" [Italy May 2002, USA Nov 2004]
'The Good War' aka 'Texas 46' movie from Italy  'Based on a true story': After the Allies win World War II, an Italian P.O.W. escapes his Texas internment camp and is recaptured by the camp commander; when they return to camp, everyone else has been evacuated . . . • Filmed in Utah, USA & Bulgaria; written & directed by Giorgio Serafini; starring Roy Scheider, Luca Zingaretti, Robert Farrior, Vincent Riotta, Sue Cremin, Charles Fathy, Giampiero Judica, Luciano Miele, Mario Opinato, Asya Chakarova, Christo Jivkov, Malin Krastev, Nikolay Mutafchiev, Laura Serafini, Julian Vergov, Nick Loeb
Monarch Home Video color DVD [11/2004] for $24.98
full credits at IMDb

stageplay "Citizen 13559: The Journal of Ben Uchida" adapted by Naomi Iizuka  "Citizen 13559: The Journal of Ben Uchida" stageplay [2006]
Adapted by Naomi Iizuka from the book by Barry Denenberg

hour-long children's stageplay first performed at Kennedy Center in
Washington, DC in May 2006
stageplay info on Kennedy Center website
author entry at Wikipedia

"American Pastime" documentary film [Warner May 2007]
American Pastime movie  A mix of archival and newly-shot footage, of modern actors and interviews with internees reveals the harrowing isolation & loneliness of the Topaz Camp in Utah and the Manzanar Camp in California, and a solution created inside the camps: Baseball! • Co-written & directed by Desmond Nakano; starring Masatoshi Nakamura, Gary Cole, Sarah Drew, Judy Ongg, Aaron Yoo, Seth Sakai, Susanna Thompson & Leonardo Nam
Warner widescreen color DVD [5/2007] for $6.99
full credits from IMDb

"99-nen No Ai: Japanese Americans" TV mini-series
[Tokyo Broadcasting System Nov 2010]
title shot for "99-nen no ai: Japanese Americans" Japanese TV miniseries  Five episodes, filmed in Japanese language; Chokichi Hiramatsu arrives in the United States from Japan in 1910; he works hard, marries Tomo, and buys a farm; they raise four children. By 1940, eldest son Ichiro turns 18 and falls in love with Shinobu, who comes to the farm to help with the work; younger brother Jiro develops a crush on Shinobu. When World War II breaks out, Chokichi is arrested and sent to a detention camp; his wife and sons and Shinobu also get sent to detention camps; daughters Shizu & Sachi are expelled to Japan. Ichiro enlists in the war and is sent to fight on the front lines in Europe; Sachi lives thru the war in Okinawa, and Shizu lives thru the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Casting indicates wrap-up 50-60 years later • Directed by Katsuo Fukuzawa; written by Sugako Hashida; starring Tsuyoshi Kusanagi {dual role}, Ken'ichi Matsuyama, Yukie Nakama, Kiichi Nakai, Pinko Izumi, Tsunehiko Kamijo, Keiko Kishi, Kaoru Yachigusa & Ayako Imoto • credits at IMDb
NOTE: This DVD on Amazon may be bootleg; reviewers describe the English subtitles as atrocious; also has Chinese subtitles option • all-region color DVD [2011?] 3 disks - out of prodn/scarce

"Prisoners & Patriots: Japanese Internment In Santa Fe"
indep video [Nov 2011]
Prisoners & Patriots documentary on WWII interneees at Santa fe, New Mexico  Filmmaker Neil H. Simon interviewed former residents of the Santa Fe internment camp, and put together a feature-length documentary, then used Kickstarter to fund distribution of his film. He has since constructed a website that redirects to wordpress; the DVD is available there • full credits at IMDb

"Allegiance: A New American Musical" [premiere Sept 2012, Broadway Nov 2015]
Allegiance musical stageplay  Begun based on chance meetings of George Takei and Lorenzo Thione & Jay Kuo at several plays on Broadway in New York City; Takei tried to raise $50K funding via crowd-funding, received $150K. Premiered at the Old Globe Theatre in San Diego, California in September 2012 and set box office records. The story is framed as memories from today, and cover the relocation, the 442nd Battalion, intracamp rivalries, the racial divide, and family tensions • Produced by Lorenzo Thione; book by Lorenzo Thione, Jay Kuo & Marc Acito; music & lyrics by Jay Kuo; inspired by events in the life of George Takei; Old Globe cast & crew: directed by Stafford Arima; starring George Takei, Lea Salonga, Telly Leung, Michael K. Lee, Paul Nakauchi, Allie Trimm, Paolo Montalban
official website • stageplay entry at Wikipedia
credits listing at Internet Broadway Database for 11/2015 to 2/1016 run
original Broadway cast recording with George Takei & Lea Salonga [2016]
Broadway Records soundtrack CD [1/2016] 26 tracks for $12.99
Broadway Records MP3 soundtrack album download [1/2016] 26 tracks for $8.99


George Takei's TED Talk about his WWII internment experience in June 2014 at TED Kyoto [15:58]

The Camps
There were 17 'Civilian Assembly Centers' plus West Coast camps for Japanese-Americans and
there were East Coast camps for German-Americans and other camps for German & Italian POWs.

INCOMPLETE map of the W.R.A. Relocation Camps during WWII in the Western USA, 1942-46

Camp Aliceville in Aliceville, Alabama housed 6,000 German POWs

Amache WWII Internment Camp near Granada, Colorado   WRA camp that is shown on map above
Amache Relocation Center Preservation Society [est. 1990]

temporary camp at Anchorage, Alaska [circa 1943]   WRA camp NOT shown on map above
located inside what is now Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson.

Antelope Springs Recreation Center [1943-45?] at former C.C.C. camp in Utah

Camp Atlanta in Nebraska housed POWs

Camp Douglas in Wyoming housed 3,000 German & Italian POWs

Crystal City, Texas Alien Enemy Detention Facility [1942-48]   WRA camp NOT shown on map above
also known as the Family Internment Camp; housed American-born children & other family members of German, Italian, and Japanese citizens,
very often of those still overseas; is claimed to be the largest of the American internment camps, but the peak population in May 1945 was only 3,326
Crystal City, Texas entry at Wikipedia • Crystal City Camp entry at Wikipedia

Train to Crystal City / Family Internment Camp book by Jan Jarboe Russell  "The Train To Crystal City: F.D.R.'s Secret Prisoner Exchange Program and
America's Only Family Internment Camp During World War II" [2015]
by Jan Jarboe Russell

Kindle Edition from Simon & Schuster Digital Sales [1/2015] for $14.99
Scribner pb [DUE January 2016] for $18.00
Scribner 9x6 hardcover [1/2015] for $20.26

Cow Creek Isolation Center [Dec 1942-Feb 1943] at former C.C.C. camp in California

Fort Bayard in Southwest New Mexico housed German POWs during WW2

Fort Lincoln in Bismarck, North Dakota

Fort Robinson in Nebraska housed POWs

Fort Stanton in New Mexico housed Japanese-Americans as well as German Merchant Marine POWs   WRA camp NOT shown on map above

Gila River Reservation in Arizona   WRA camp that is shown on map above

Griffith Park U.S. Army Internment facility [March 1942-??] in Burbank, California
held small number of 'dangerous' detaineees before transfer elsewhere

Camp Hearne [1942-46], SE of Waco, Texas housed 5,000 German POWs

Heart Mountain in Wyoming   WRA camp that is shown on map above
Remembering Heart Mountain Essays book edited by Mike Mackey  
"Remembering Heart Mountain: Essays On Japanese American
Internment In Wyoming" [1998] Edited by Mike Mackey

Endeavor/Western History Publns 9x6 pb [6/1998] for $20.85
Heart Mountain Concentration Camp by Mike Mackey  "Heart Mountain: Life In Wyoming's Concentration Camp" [2000]
by Mike Mackey

Endeavor/Western History Publns 9x6 pb [4/2000] for $15.95

Hereford, Texas Internment Area [1942-47]
50 miles SW of Amarillo, Texas; housed 5,000 Italian POWs during World War II; 'hardcore fascist officers' were isolated from regular soldiers
in a separate higher-security section; some reports say that the officers' rations were reduced below Geneva Convention standards.

"Les Murs de Sable (Walls of Sand)" documentary TV movie [Belgium Sept 1991]
Produced by Nicole La Bouverie; written & directed by Giorgio Serafini • bare credits at IMDb
VHS/DVD/Blu-ray not available • not the same-titled 1994 Iranian feature film on VHS at Amazon

March 2014 article in the Hereford Brand newspaper

Hot Springs, NC internment camp housed 2,200 German prisoners during World War I

Jerome Internment Camp [Oct 1942-June 1944] in Denson, Arkansas   WRA camp that is shown on map above

Lordsburg U.S. Army Internment Camp [June 1942-1944?] in southwest New Mexico   WRA camp NOT shown on map above
held Japanese-Americans and Japanese & German POWs and U.S. Army prisoners

Manzanar Internment Camp in winter, people in street        Manzanar Internment Camp [June 1942-Nov 1945]   WRA camp that is shown on map above
in the Owens Valley desert of California

Manzanar National Historic Site [est. April 2004]
town entry at Wikipedia • Relocation Center entry at Wikipedia
Manzanar [CA] WWII internment camp history
Manzanar information website
The Manzanar Committee website

Minidoka Relocation Center in south-central Idaho   
official N.P.S. website • Minidoka camp entry at Wikipedia

Every March 30th, the city of Bainbridge Island, Washington remembers the evacuation of its Japanese citizens in 1942, who were shipped to
American internment camps per Executive Order #9066. The city's memorial [est. 2009] is a wall 276 feet long – one foot for every Japanese person who
lived here in 1942 – and is now a satellite of the National Park Service Minidoka National Historic Site in Idaho.
official N.P.S. website for Bainbridge Memorial • Bainbridge Memorial entry at Wikipedia

Minidoka, An American Concentration Camp book by Teresa Tamura  "Minidoka: An American Concentration Camp" [2013]
by photographer Teresa Tamura

180 black-and-white photographs, supplemented by essays & interviews
Caxton Press 9x10¾ hardcover [7/2013] for $22.30
Surviving Minidoka / Japanese-American Incarceration book by Russell M. Tremayne & Todd Shallat  "Surviving Minidoka: The Legacy of WWII Japanese American Incarceration" [2013] by Russell M. Tremayne & Todd Shallat
won the 2014 Idaho Book Award, won the 2014 Idaho Center for the Book 'Bookers Dozen' prize
Boise State Univ hardcover [10/2013] out of print/scarce

Mirror Lake Internment Camp, California   WRA camp NOT shown on map above

Poston War Relocation Center [April 1942-September 1945] in southwest Arizona   WRA camp that is shown on map above
Three distinct camps near the Colorado River; peak combined population 17,814 internees
camp entry at Wikipedia • Poston Camp Restoration blog [est. 2/2008]

Passing Poston independent documentary film about Poston Relocation Center  "Passing Poston: An American Story" documentary film [indep 2008]
Hour-long independent film by co-producer, writer, co-director Joe Fox and
co-producer, editor, co-director James Nubile; broadcast on many P.B.S. stations
Docurama color DVD [9/2008] for $16.93
full credits at IMDb • official movie site • producers' website
watch 7/2008 official trailer [3:14] at YouTube

Rohwer Internment Camp in Arkansas   WRA camp that is shown on map above

Roswell Internment Camp in New Mexico housed German POWs

Santa Anita Racetrack Civilian Assembly Center [March-October 1942] in Arcadia, California

Santa Fe, New Mexico Internment Camp [1942-46] housed 4,500 men   WRA camp NOT shown on map above
'San Ta He' camp historical photos
"Remembering: The Santa Fe Japanese Internment Camp" short video [9:25] from KNME-TV

Camp Scottsbluff in Nebraska housed POWs

Scottsdale, Arizona & Papago Park
German POWs and the great escape of Christmas Eve, 1944

Tanforan Racetrack Civilian Assembly Center [April-October 1942] in San Bruno, California
About 8,000 Japanese-Americans were housed in horse stalls before being transferred to permanent (and remote)
'relocation centers'. The site became a shopping mall in the 1960s.

Topaz Internment Center at Delta, Utah   WRA camp that is shown on map above
housed over 11,000 people of Japanese ancestry from September 1942 to October 1945
official museum website • Spirit of America's WWII Internment Page • Wikipedia

Tule Lake Segregation Center (punishment camp) [May 1942-March 1946] in Central California   WRA camp that is shown on map above

Tuna Canyon U.S. Army Internment facility [March 1942-??] in Tujunga, California
held small number of immigrant Japanese & German & Italian nationals before transfer elsewhere

L i n k s
CY's Internment information page
Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project [est. 1996] of Seattle, Washington

here on the World War II Internment Camps Page at Spirit of America Bookstore

top of page • short history & timeline • general non-fiction • personal accounts • fiction books

internment art • plays, movies, other media • the camps • links

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