Spirit of America Bookstore

Inventions  of  America
•  Computers  •

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             computer operations room circa 1965, with I.B.M. 360 console on right and tape drives in left background and disk drives in center background              general books

Ancient Times

Historical Computers

Mainframe Computers

Personal Computers

A Few Important People

A Few Important Dates

other media

image gallery


Should computers really be termed an Invention of America? Well, why not? While much early work was accomplished
by the Brits, from Babbage to Turing, and by others, the modern electronic computer arose with EDVAC & ENIAC and I.B.M. and
Sperry-Rand and Honeywell and Burroughs and COBOL and Microsoft and Apple. So there!

"The real question is not whether machines think but whether men do."
— American psychologist B.F. Skinner [1904-90]

General  Books

Computer Illustrated History From its Origins book by Mark Frauenfelder  "The Computer: An Illustrated History From Its Origins To The Present Day" [2013]
by Mark Frauenfelder

Carlton Books 8½x8½ hardcover [3/2013] for $17.97
History of the Computer children's book by Elizabeth Raum  "The History of the Computer (Inventions That Changed The World)" [ages 6-8; 2007]
by Elizabeth Raum

32-page Heinemann 8¾x8 pb [9/2007] for $8.29
32-page Heinemann 8¾x8 library hardcover [9/2007] for $23.77
DK Eyewitness - Computer children's book  "D.K. Eyewitness Books: Computer" [ages 8-12; 2011]
D.K. Children 11x8½ pb [7/2011] out of print/used
D.K. Children 11½x8¾ library hardcover [6/2011] out of print/used
D.K. Children 11¼x8¾ hardcover with clip-art CD [6/2011] out of print/used
D.K. Children 11¼x8¾ hardcover with clip-art CD [6/2011] out of print/used

Computers  of  Ancient  Times
A 2,000-year-old shipwreck discovered in April 1900 off the coast of Greece yielded scores of broken pieces of marble & bronze statuary and amphorae and an encrusted brass
mechanism; years of detective work replicated the Antikythera device, which appears to be an astonishingly-sophisticated astronomical calculator and eclipse predictor,
probably designed by Archimedes [287-212 BCE] and built around 100 BCE.
The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project [est. 2005] at Cardiff University in Wales, UK
Antikythera celestial mechanism entry at Wikipedia

Ancient Discoveries 6-episode TV series  "Ancient Discoveries" TV mini-series [Sky Vision Dec 2003]
Six episodes about ancient clocks thru the Antikythera Mechanism used to predict astronomical events.
Co-produced & co-directed by Stuart Clarke & Ali McGrath; narrated by Sean Barrett, featuring Ian Mullins, Dimitri Tchamouroff, Dr. Christopher Kelly, Allan Mills & Michael T. Wright
Koch Vision widescreen color DVD [7/2007] 2 disks - out of prodn/scarce
full credits at IMDb
watch Episode 1: 'Antikythera' [50:30] online at YouTube
Decoding the Heavens book by Jo Marchant  "Decoding The Heavens: A 2,000-Year-Old Computer - and The Century-Long Search To Discover Its Secrets" [2009] by Jo Marchant
Kindle Edition from Da Capo Press [2/2009] for $9.99
Da Capo Press 8¼x5½ pb [3/2010] for $13.68
Da Capo Press 8¼x5¾ hardcover [2/2009] out of print/60+ used
2,000-Year-Old Antikythera Mechanism TV documentary from P.B.S./Nova  "The 2,000-Year-Old Computer: Decoding The Antikythera Mechanism" [P.B.S. 2012]
A team of modern scientists in Athens, London, and Canada decipher the design of the Antikythera Mechanism combining individual and team insights with newly-available technologies to build a working replica.
Co-produced, written & directed by Michael Beckham; narrated by Dilly Barlow (female voice)
VHS/DVD/Blu-ray not available • full credits at IMDb
watch full episode [58:46] online at YouTube
second version [1:21:39, repeats at 49:30] online at YouTube
Nova Ancient Computer TV program  "Nova: Ancient Computer (Season 40, Episode 14)" TV documentary [P.B.S. 2013]
A team of modern scientists in Athens, London, and Canada decipher the design of the Antikythera Mechanism combining individual and team insights with newly-available technologies to build a working replica.
Co-produced & directed by Michael Beckham; narrated by Jay O. Sanders
full credits at IMDb
hour-long P.B.S. Direct color DVD [1/2013] for $14.95
watch full episode [58:20] online at YouTube

The  Historical  Computer
American Computer & Robotics Museum [est. 1990] in Bozeman, Montana
The Compuseum - A Modern Look At Computing's Past [est. 11/2013] in Exton, PA
Computer History Museum [est. 1979], 1401 No. Shoreline Blvd. in Mountain View, CA
Gerhard Kreuzer's Computermuseum [est. 2008] in Austria

On the Principles and Development of the Calculator collection by Charles Babbage  "On The Principles and Development of The Calculator and Other Seminal Writings" [1961]
by Charles Babbage [1791-1871], Edited & with Introduction by Philip & Emily Morrison

Kindle Edition from Dover Publns [9/2013] for $9.99
Dover Publns 8½x5¼ pb [11/2012] for $20.31
Computing Before Computers book  "Computing Before Computers" [1990]
by W. Aspray, A.G. Bromley, M. Campbell-Kelly, P.E. Ceruzzi & M.R. Williams

Iowa State Press 10¼x7¼ hardcover [5/90] out of print/used
History of The Information Machine book by Campbell-Kelly, Aspray, Ensmenger & Yost  "Computer: A History of The Information Machine" [1996]
by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan Ensmenger & Jeffrey R. Yost

From Babbage and Hollerith to the rise of the World Wide Web.
Kindle Edition from Westview Press [7/2013] for $25.49 {sic}
Westview Press 3rd edition 9x6 pb [7/2013] for $39.90
Basic Books 9¾x6½ hardcover [7/96] out of print/40+ used
History Channel / Modern Marvels / The Creation of The Computer  "Modern Marvels: Thinking Machines - The Creation of The Computer"
[History Channel Nov 1996]

Begins with Charles Babbage's mechanical Difference Engine in the 1820s; Herman Hollerith's punch-card tabulating machines of the 1890s; through the first vacuum-tube machines in World War II (Colossus and ENIAC); miniaturization enabled by the transistor, integrated circuit & microprocessor; to the beginnings of the personal computer revolution led by Steve Wozniak, Steve Jobs, and Bill Gates.
Season 4, Episode 5 aired November 1996; written by Donald Sellers; narrated by Earl Boen
A&E Home Video b&w/color DVD [12/2005] out of prodn/scarce
credits at IMDb
Difference Engine First Computer book by Doron Swade  
"The Difference Engine: Charles Babbage & The Quest To Build The First Computer" [2001] by Doron Swade
Viking 8x5¼ hardcover [9/2001] for $17.46
Punched-Card Systems & the Early Information Explosion book by Lars Heide  "Punched-Card Systems and The Early Information Explosion, 1880-1945" [2009]
by Lars Heide

Kindle Edition from Johns Hopkins Univ Press [3/2009] for $64.60 {sic}
Johns Hopkins Univ Press 9x6 hardcover [3/2009] for $68.00
It Began with Babbage / The Genesis of Computer Science book by Subrata Dasgupta  "It Began With Babbage: The Genesis of Computer Science" [2014]
by Subrata Dasgupta

Traces development from Babbage in 1819 thru Ada Lovelace, Turing, von Neumann, Shannon, and Chomsky to the end of the 1960s and the new academic discipline named 'computer science'
Kindle Edition from Oxford Univ Press [1/2014] for $14.39
Oxford Univ Press 9¼x6½ hardcover [2/2014] for $33.20
Thrilling Adventures of Lovelace & Babbage book by Sydney Padua  "The Thrilling Adventures of Lovelace and Babbage: The (Mostly) True Story of The First Computer" [2015 novel] by Sydney Padua
Ada Lovelace [1815-52], daughter of Lord Byron, translated a Charles Babbage [1791-1871] manuscript about the design of a mathematical 'difference engine' and added annotations amounting to three times the original document. She died ten years later of cancer, and none of Babbage's devices were completed in his lifetime. This book is an alternate reality wherein Ada and Charles do complete an analytical engine and use it to solve problems in science and in crime. (With b&w illustrations throughout.)
Kindle Edition from Pantheon/Random House [4/2015] for $14.99
Pantheon 10¼x7¼ hardcover [4/2015] for $19.61

The  Mainframe  Computer
'computer' entry at Wikipedia

Quick Mainframe Milestones
  • 1939 Oct: Completion of the prototype Atanasoff–Berry electronic digital computer at Iowa State College.
  • 1940 March: The first of Turing's electromechanical 'bombe' machines for decoding Enigma was installed at Bletchley Park in England.
  • 1943 Dec: British Colossus computer was first demonstrated.
  • 1945 June: John von Neumann's Draft Report about EDVAC.
  • 1946 Feb 14: The E.N.I.A.C. (short for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) was announced to the public at University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia; it was designed & built by John W. Mauchly [1907-80] and J. Presper Eckert, Jr. [1919-95]; this was the second general-purpose electronic computer and the first reprogrammable digital computer (in use until October 1955).
  • 1947 Dec 23: Bell Labs of New Jersey publicly demonstrated the first semiconductor amplifier, a primitive transistor.
  • 1949 Aug: The EDVAC computer was delivered to the U.S. Army.
  • 1951 April 20: Whirlwind I went online; built by M.I.T. at Barta Hall (Bldg. N42) for the U.S. Navy; it was the first bit-parallel mode digital computer, and the first to utilize magnetic core memory.
  • 1952 May 7: Geoffrey W.A. Dummer [1909-2002] first presented the concept of the integrated circuit, also known as the microchip, which is the basis for all modern electronic equipment; since he was six years ahead of Jack Kilby, who received the U.S. patent, Dummer was known as 'The Prophet of The Integrated Circuit'.
  • 1959 Feb 6: Patent filed for "Miniaturized Electronic Circuits", the first integrated circuit, by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments; Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor independently made a similar circuit a few months later, so the two men are generally credited as co-inventors of the integrated circuit.
  • 1959 Oct 5: I.B.M. announced the all-transistorized Model 1401 data processing system for small businesses,
  • 1964 April 7: I.B.M. introduced the innovative System/360 mainframe computers, the first line designed to give customers 'upward compatibility', the option to upgrade later to more powerful (and more expensive) configurations.
  • 1970 June 30: I.B.M. introduced the System/370 mainframe computers, successor to the Systen/360 line.
  • 1973 Oct: The Honeywell v. Sperry Rand federal court decision that named John Atanasoff as inventor of the digital computer.
  • 'The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann' book by Herman H. Goldstine  "The Computer: From Pascal To von Neumann" [1972]
    by Herman H. Goldstine

    Goldstine claims to have designed and built the ENIAC and EDVAC prototype computers under supervision of von Neumann - book blurbs make no mention of Eckert and Mauchly! Wikipedia says that he and his wife were in charge of the creation of programs for the new EDVAC machine.
    Kindle Edition from Princeton Univ Press [9/2008] for $40.49 {sic}
    Princeton Univ Press 9x6 pb [10/80] for $62.63
    Princeton Univ Press 9x6 pb [10/80] out of print/used
    Princeton Univ Press 9¾x6¼ hardcover [10/72] out of print/50+ used
    Atanasoff - Forgotten Father of the Computer book by Clark R. Mollenhoff  
    "Atanasoff: Forgotten Father of The Computer" [1988]
    by Clark R. Mollenhoff

    Iowa State Press 10¾x8¾ hardcover [4/1988] out of print/50+ used
    First Electronic Computer / Atanasoff Story book by Alice R. & Arthur W. Burks  "The First Electronic Computer: The Atanasoff Story" [1988]
    by Alice R. & Arthur W. Burks

    Univ Michigan Press pb [11/89] for $43.50
    Univ Michigan Press 10¼x7¼ hardcover [7/88] out of print/used
    History of Modern Computing book by Paul E. Ceruzzi  "A History of Modern Computing" [1998] by Paul E. Ceruzzi
    Focuses on four major events: the transformation of mainframe computers from scientific to commercial use; the emergence of small systems in the 1960s; the invention of the personal computer in the 1970s; and the spread of networking after 1985; second edition adds developments from 1995-2001: the Microsoft antitrust suit, the rise & fall of the dot-coms, and open source software such as Linux.
    Kindle Edition from M.I.T. Press [2003 edition] for $16.54
    M.I.T. Press 2nd edition 9x6 pb [4/2003] for $17.41
    M.I.T. Press 9¼x6¼ hardcover [10/98] out of print/used
    ENIAC The World's First Computer book by Scott McCartney  "ENIAC: The Triumphs and Tragedies of The World's First Computer" [1999]
    by Scott McCartney

    John von Neumann [1903-57] is wrongly credited as the inventor of the modern computer as a result of a draft report (June 1945) by him that was prematurely distributed without including the names of John Mauchly [1907-80] and J. Presper Eckert [1919-95], the creator-builders of the EDVAC computer. This book tells two stories: the struggles of Eckert and Mauchly in creating ENIAC (February 1946) and EDVAC (August 1949) and the later struggle to receive proper credit for their historic work.
    Berkley Trade 7½x5¾ pb [2/2001] out of print/50+ used
    Walker & Co. hardcover [6/99] out of print/60+ used

    History Channel / Modern Marvels / Computers  "Modern Marvels: Computers" [History Channel April 2001]
    Season 8, Episode 11 aired April 2001 • bare credits at IMDb
    A&E Home Video b&w/color DVD [12/2005] out of prodn/used
    A&E Home Video b&w/color VHS [6/2001] out of prodn/used

    "Modern Marvels: The Computer" [History Channel Dec 2004]
    Season 11, Episode 76 aired Dec 2004
    not listed on IMDb • VHS/DVD/Blu-ray not available

    'Who Invented the Computer?' book by Alice Rowe Burks  
    "Who Invented The Computer? The Legal Battle That Changed Computing History" [2003] by Alice Rowe Burks, Foreword by Douglas R. Hofstadter
    Kindle Edition from Prometheus Books [2003 edition] for $12.99
    Prometheus Books 97Frac14x6¼ hardcover [2003] out of print/used
    Bright Boys / Information Technology book by Tom Green  "Bright Boys: The Making of Information Technology" [2010]
    by Tom Green, Special Foreword by {project leader} Jay W. Forrester

    Postwar fears of the Soviets, then absorbing countries in East Europe, led to an operation as secret as the Manhattan Project: Americans were sent to Germany to find and bring back any and all new or potential technologies before the Soviets found them, and to import any scientist or technician involved. The result gathered at the low-tech Barta Building at M.I.T. and the result was Information Technology.
    Kindle Edition from C.R.C. Press [3/2010] for $43.95 {sic}
    A.K. Peters/C.R.C. Press 9¼x6¼ hardcover [3/2010] for $31.35
    Grace Hopper / Information Age book by Kurt W. Beyer  
    "Grace Hopper and The Invention of The Information Age" [2009]
    by Kurt W. Beyer

    Kindle Edition from BookBaby [2/2015] for $11.99
    M.I.T. Press 8x5½ pb [2/2012] for $18.60
    M.I.T. Press 8x5½ hardcover [7/2009] out of print/many used
    John Atanasoff, Digital Pioneer book by Jane Smiley  "The Man Who Invented the Computer: The Biography of John Atanasoff, Digital Pioneer" [2010] by Jane Smiley
    The story of John Vincent Atanasoff [1903-95], who built a working digital computer at Iowa State College in November 1939 but never filed a patent, and was named the first inventor of the computer in the 1973 Honeywell v. Sperry Rand decision.
    Kindle Edition from ... [9/00] for $0.00
    Doubleday 9½x6½ hardcover [10/2010] for $25.95

    The  Personal  Computer
    'personal computer' entry at Wikipedia

    Pirates of Silicon Valley TV movie about Microsoft's Bill Gates & Apple, Inc.'s Steve Jobs  "Fire In The Valley: The Making of The Personal Computer" [1984]
    by Paul Freiberger & Michael Swaine

    McGraw-Hill 2nd edition 9x7¼ pb [11/2000] out of print/many used
    McGraw-Hill 9¾x7½ hardcover with CD-ROM [12/99] out of print/used
    "Pirates of Silicon Valley" [Haft/T.N.T. June 1999]
    Semi-humorous TV docudrama about the origins of Microsoft, Inc. and of Apple, Inc. Written & directed by Martyn Burke, based on the book by Paul Freiberger & Michael Swaine; starring Noah Wyle {as Steve Jobs}, Anthony Michael Hall {as Bill Gates}, Joey Slotnick {as Steve Wozniak}, John Di Maggio {as Steve Ballmer} & Josh Hopkins {as Paul Allen}; won ACE Award, nominated for DGA Award, PGA Award, and 7 Emmy Awards
    Turner Home Ent. color DVD [8/2005] for $15.99
    Turner Home Ent. color VHS [5/2000] for $14.44
    full credits at IMDbofficial movie site

    Fumbling the Future / Xerox PARC	book by Douglas K. Smith & Robert C. Alexander  "Fumbling The Future: How Xerox Invented, Then Ignored, The First Personal Computer" [1988] by Douglas K. Smith & Robert C. Alexander
    Kindle Edition from iUniverse/toExcel [1999 edition] for $3.03 }sic}
    iUniverse 9x6 pb [6/99] for $17.95
    William Morrow & Co. 9½x6 hardcover [9/88] out of print/40+ used
    Dealers of Lightning / Xerox PARC book by Michael Hiltzik  "Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and The Dawn of The Computer Age" [1999]
    by Michael A. Hiltzik

    Kindle Edition from HarperCollins e-books [5/2009] for $9.99
    HarperBusiness 8x5¼ pb [4/2000] for $16.06
    HarperBusiness pb [4/2000] out of print/used
    HarperBusiness pb [4/2000] out of print/many used
    HarperBusiness 9¼x6 hardcover [3/99] out of print/50+ used
    History of The Desktop Computer book by Matt Nicholson  "When Computing Got Personal: A History of The Desktop Computer" [2014]
    by Matt Nicholson

    Kindle Edition from Matt Publng [2/2014] for $7.79
    Matt Publng 9x6 pb [2/2014] for $20.71
    Matt Publng 9x6 pb [2/2014] out of print/used

    Other  Platforms

    Console Wars book by Blake J. Harris  "Console Wars: Sega, Nintendo, and The Battle That Defined A Generation" [2014]
    by Blake J. Harris, Foreword by Seth Rogen & Evan Goldberg

    Kindle Edition from Dey Street/HarperCollins [5/2014] for $9.24
    Dey Street Books 9x6 pb [6/2015] for $8.98
    It Books 9x6 hardcover [5/2014] for $16.00
    Blood, Sweat, and Pixels book by Jason Schreier  "Blood, Sweat, and Pixels: The Triumphant, Turbulent Stories Behind How Video Games Are Made" [2017] national bestseller by Jason Schreier
    Kindle Edition from HarperCollins Publrs [9/2017] for $10.99
    Harper Paperbacks 8x5¼ pb [9/2017] for $9.59

    A  Few  Important  People

    Paul Allen - co-founder of Apple, Inc.

    Dr. John Vincent Atanasoff [1903-95]
    deemed in 1973 as inventor of the electronic digital computer in October 1939

    Charles Babbage [1791-1871]

    Steve Ballmer

    John Bardeen [1908-91] - co-inventor of the transistor in 1947

    Tim Berners-Lee at C.E.R.N. in Switzerland.

    Walter H. Brattain [1902-87] - co-inventor of the transistor in 1947

    Vinton Gray 'Vint' Cerf [b. 1943] - co-inventor of the internet

    J. Presper Eckert [1919-95]

    Douglas Carl Engelbart [1925-2013] - inventor of the computer mouse

    Bill Gates - co-founder of Microsoft
    Melinda Gates - co-chair Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Herman Hollerith [1860-1929] - inventor of the punched data card

    Grace Hopper [] led the team that created the COBOL computer language
    entry at Wikipedia

    The Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing [est. 1994]
    official websiteentry at Wikipedia

    "Grace Hopper: Computer Pioneer" [] by Joanne Mattern

    "Grace Hopper: Admiral of the Cyber Sea" [] by Kathleen Broome…

    Grace Hopper / Information Age book by Kurt W. Beyer  
    "Grace Hopper and The Invention of The Information Age" [2009]
    by Kurt W. Beyer

    Kindle Edition from BookBaby [2/2015] for $11.99
    M.I.T. Press 8x5½ pb [2/2012] for $18.60
    M.I.T. Press 8x5½ hardcover [7/2009] out of print/many used

    "The Queen of Code" documentary film [2015] produced by FiveThirtyEight

    Steve Jobs - co-founder of Apple, Inc.

    Robert Elliot 'Bob' Kahn [b. 1938] - co-inventor of the internet

    Jack St. Clair Kilby [1923-2005] - co-inventor of the Integrated Circuit

    Leonard Kleinrock [b. 1934] of U.C.L.A. - co-inventor of the internet

    Ada Byron Lovelace [1815-52] - the first programmer

    'Ada the Enchantress of Numbers' in Kindle format by Betty Alexandra Toole  "Ada, The Enchantress of Numbers: Poetical Science" [1992] by Betty Alexandra Toole
    Kindle Edition includes all of Ada's fascinating letters to Charles Babbage, 55 pictures, and footnotes
    Kindle Edition from Critical Connection [10/2010] for $7.99
    Strawberry Press 8x5¼ pb [2/98] out of print/many used
    Strawberry Press 9¼x6½ hardcover [3/92] out of print/used
    Ada's Algorithm book by James Essinger  "Ada's Algorithm: How Lord Byron's Daughter Ada Lovelace Launched The Digital Age Through The Poetry of Numbers" [2013] by James Essinger
    Kindle Edition from Melville House [10/2014] for $12.99
    Melville House pb [10/2015] for $13.14
    Gibson Square Books Ltd. 8½x5¼ pb [10/2013] out of print/used
    Melville House 8½x5¾ hardcover [10/2014] for $19.23
    Ada Byron Lovelace and the Thinking Machine children's book by Laurie Wallmark & April Chu  "Ada Byron Lovelace and The Thinking Machine" [ages 5 & up; 2015]
    by Laurie Wallmark, Illustrated by April Chu

    40-page Creston Books 11x9 hardcover [10/2015] for $12.78
    Enchantress of Numbers novel by Jennifer Chiaverini  "Enchantress of Numbers: A Novel of Ada Lovelace" [2017]  12/2017
    by Jennifer Chiaverini

    Kindle Edition from Dutton/Penguin [12/2017] for $12.99
    Dutton 9¼x6¼ hardcover [12/2017] for $17.70

    John Mauchly [1907-80]

    Robert Noyce [1927-90] - co-inventor of the Integrated Circuit

    Lawrence G. Roberts [b. 1937] - co-inventor of the internet

    William Bradford Shockley, Jr. [1910-89] - co-inventor of the transistor in 1947

    visionary Nikola Tesla [1856-1943] Page
    at Maison d'Être Philosophy Bookstore

    British computer genius Alan Turing [1912-54] Page
    at Maison d'Être Philosophy Bookstore

    engineer & speaker Bret Victor - 'Purveyor of Impossible Dreams'
    no books published yet • official websiteentry at Wikipedia

    “Inventing On Principle” talk at Turing Complete conference on 20 January 2012
    watch lecture [54:19] online at YouTube

    “Drawing Dynamic Visualizations” talk [May 2013]
    watch lecture [35:15] online at YouTube

    “The Future of Programming” talk at Dropbox's DBX conference on 9 July 2013
    watch lecture [32:55] online at YouTube

    “Stop Drawing Dead Fish: Making Art On Computers” talk
    watch lecture [8/2013 upload; 53:32] online at YouTube

    John von Neumann [1903-57]

    "John Von Neumann: The Scientific Genius Who Pioneered the Modern Computer, Game Theory,
    Nuclear Deterrence, and..." [10/1999] by Norman MacRae

    Steve Wozniak - co-founder of Apple, Inc.

    Mark Zuckerberg - co-founder of Facebook

    Historical Dictionary of Data Processing Biographies book by James W. Cortada  
    "Historical Dictionary of Data Processing: Biographies" [1987]
    by James W. Cortada

    Biographies of more than 160 individuals extending in time from antiquity through the 1980s
    Greenwood 9¼x6 hardcover [8/87] for $140.00
    Biographical Dictionary of Computer Pioneers book by John A.N. Lee  "International Biographical Dictionary of Computer Pioneers" [1995] by John A.N. Lee
    over 270 entries, reference work published by Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers
    Routledge/I.E.E.E. 10½x7½x2¼" thick {4.3 pounds!} hardcover [11/95] for $395.00 {sic}
    I.E.E.E. 9¼x6½x2" thick {2.9 pounds!} hardcover [6/95] out of print/used

    A  Few  Important  Dates

  • 1400 BCE The Clepsydra clock of Babylon
  • circa 270 BCE water clock of Greek inventor Csestibus
  • circa 100 BCE The Antikythera celestial mechanism probably designed by Archimedes [287-212 BCE]
  • 1801 The Jacquard Loom
  • 1939 invention of the programmable electronic computer
  • 1947 invention of the transistor
  • 1948 American mathematician Norbert Wiener published "Cybernetics"
  • 1991 Aug 6: First webpage on the World Wide Web was placed online by physicist Tim Berners-Lee at C.E.R.N. in Switzerland.

    Movies & Television,  Stageplays,  Other  Media

    "Desk Set" [May 1957]
    starring Tracy and Hepburn fighting over the company's new EMERAC computer

    "Alphaville" [May 1965]
    Set in a distant, dystopian future controlled by a sentient cloud-like dictatorial computer named Alpha 60
    Jean-Luc Godard's science fiction and film noir thriller stars veteran tough guy Eddie Constantin

    "Hot Millions" [MGM Sept 1968]
    co-written by & starring Peter Ustinov, also starring Maggie Smith & Karl Malden

    "Colossus: The Forbin Project" [1970]

    "Demon Seed" [April 1977]

    "WarGames" [M.G.M. June 1983] directed by John Badham /tt0086567/

    "WarGames: The Dead Code" sequel [DVD release July 2008]
    A sequel was directed by Stuart Gillard, starring Matt Lanter;
    a hacker named Will Farmer faces off with a government supercomputer called RIPLEY.

    "WarGames" remake [M.G.M.; in development] /tt1976650/
    Announced 2013?: filmmaker Dean Israelite and screenwriter Arash Amel are signed on to the reboot of the 1980s techno-thriller.

    "Electric Dreams" [M.G.M. July 1984]

    "The Net" [Columbia Pictures 1995] /tt0113957/
    Directed by Irwin Winkler; written by John Brancato & Michael Ferris; starring Sandra Bullock, Jeremy Northam, Dennis Miller

    spinoff TV series

    "The Net 2.0" direct-to-video sequel [2006]

    "Hackers" [1995] /tt0113243/

    "Track Down" [studio 2000]
    Skeet Ulrich (Actor), Russell Wong (Actor)

    "Antitrust" [Jan 2001]

    "The First $20 Million Is Always The Hardest" [Fox June 2002]
    based on a novel by technology-culture writer Po Bronson; starring Adam Garcia

    "dot" [The Asylum Dec 2002]
    'dot' movie  Spinal Tap-style mockumentary feature film about three pals who put together an internet startup company for the express purpose of making a fortune, even though they have no product and no business plan. "A comic look at a period in our culture so far ahead of itself that its present is already passé." • Co-produced, co-written & co-directed by Simeon Schnapper & Brett Singer; starring Michael Mazzara, Stephen Eugene Walker, Simeon Schnapper, Jamie McMillan, Katherine Martinez Ripley & Matthew O'Neill • full credits at IMDb
    Vanguard Cinema color DVD [12/2002] out of prodn/used

    "Echelon Conspiracy" [Feb 2009]

    "Control Alt Delete" [DVD release June 2010]
    Starring Tyler Labine, Sonja Bennett, Geoff Gustafson, ()

    "The Social Network"
    [Relativity Media / Columbia Oct 2010]
    Social Network 2010 movie poster  "You don't get to 500 million friends without making a few enemies": The story of the college student who created the Facebook phenomenon and six years later became the youngest billionaire in history. Directed by David Fincher; based on the book by Ben Mezrich; starring Jesse Eisenberg, Andrew Garfield, Justin Timberlake, Brenda Song, Rashida Jones, Max Minghella, Rooney Mara & Joseph Mazzello
    DVD/Blu-ray not yet available • full credits at IMDbofficial movie site
    Accidental Billionaires / Founding of Facebook book by Ben Mezrich  "The Accidental Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook - A Tale of Sex, Money, Genius, and Betrayal" [2009 bestseller] by Ben Mezrich
    Without access to central figure Mark Zuckerberg, the author fictionalized many important parts of the story, as well as sensationalizing college life; the result is a questionable but nonetheless exciting tale.
    Anchor 8¼x6 pb [5/2010] for $10.85
    Doubleday 9¼x6 hardcover [7/2009] for $16.50

    "Computer Chess" [studio July 2013]

    "Her" [Warner Bros. Dec 2013]
    produced, written & directed by Spike Jonze

    "The Imitation Game"
    [StudioCanal/The Weinstein Company Nov 2014]
    Graham Moore won the Oscar for Best Adapted Screenplay     The Imitation Game   A reported break-in at his home brings Alan Turing to the attention of the police; the lack of a war record makes them think that Turing might be a Soviet spy, and they begin digging deeper; during an interrogation, Turing relates (via flashback) his secret work on Nazi cyphers at Bletchley Park; the authorities realize that Turing is homosexual, a serious crime in Britain; a conviction halts his government career, and Turing commits suicide • Directed by Morten Tyldum; co-produced & written by Graham Moore, based on the book by Andrew Hodges; starring Benedict Cumberbatch, Keira Knightley, Charles Dance, Mark Strong, Matthew Goode, Rory Kinnear, Allen Leech, Matthew Beard, James Northcote, Tom Goodman-Hill, Steven Waddington, Ilan Goodman, Jack Tarlton, Alex Lawther, Jack Bannon & Tuppence Middleton; won Oscar Award for Best Adapted Screenplay; Oscar noms for Best Motion Picture, Best Director, Best Actor (BC), Best Supporting Actress {KK}, Best Original Music Score, Best Film Editing & Best Pro-duction Design; also won A.F.I. Movie of The Year Award, 3 Empire Awards in U.K., GLAAD Media Award, 4 Hollywood Film Awards, USC Scripter Award, W.G.A. Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, plus many film festival awards
    Anchor Bay widescreen color Blu-ray [3/2015] for $17.49
    Anchor Bay widescreen color DVD [3/2015] for $12.96
    full credits at IMDbofficial movie sitemovie entry at Wikipedia
    watch official trailers online at YouTube: 7/2014 trailer [2:32]9/2014 intl trailer [1:48]
            11/2014 trailer [1:06]1/2015 trailer [2:16]

    "Eighteen Zeros: The Power and Possibilities of Exascale Computing"
    [Hewlett Packard Oct 2017]
    watch 10/2017 promo video [6:43] at YouTube

    Image  Gallery

    Ancient Greek scribe working at his laptop         joke poster 'original computer' (pencil)

    1997 replica of the Atanassof-Berry digital computer, as built in 1938         ancient artifact: I.B.M. personal computer          Steve Jobs at the 1984 launch of the Macintosh personal computer

    L i n k s
    'computer' entry at Wikipedia
    'personal computer' entry at Wikipedia

    Charles Babbage Institute at the University of Minnesota

    The Computer Museum [1979-1999] in Boston, MA
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Computer_Museum,_Boston + http://tcm.computerhistory.org/

    American Computer Museum [est. 5/1990] in Bozeman, Montana
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Computer_Museum + http://www.compustory.com/

    Computer History Museum [est. 1996] in Mountain View, California
    http://www.computerhistory.org/ + http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_History_Museum

    picture         Major League Hacking [est. 2013]
    entry at Wikipedia
    worldwide Local Hack Day is on December Third

    Working Minds / Things To Worry About / Internet Freedom Page
    Battle For The Net - Support Net Neutrality
    Fight For The Future [est. 2011]
    Fight for the Future Education Fund [est. 2014]

    Personal Computers & Accessories Dept. at Amazon

    here on 'The Computer' Page at Spirit of America Bookstore

    top of pagegeneral booksAncient TimesHistorical ComputersMainframe ComputersPersonal Computers

    A Few Important PeopleA Few Important Datesother mediaimage gallerylinks

    Cyber Film Festival at Magic Lantern Video & Book Store
    Working Minds / Things To Worry About / Internet Freedom Page

    ˜                   ˜

    Inventors of America Pages at Spirit of America Bookstore

    top of Page 1short historygeneral linksgeneral booksinventors, A-ZAfro-American inventors

    top of Page 2teams & other inventionsKindle Editionsother media

    ˜                   ˜

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