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Stereoscopic  {3-D}  Cinema

Cinematography Page

Reference & Technical Page

           Life Magazine photo from 1952 of movie audience all wearing 3-D glasses
photo by J.R. Eyerman published in Life Magazine
of the opening night audience for
color 3-D feature "Bwana Devil" [1952]
poster prints in 4 sizes
no longer available from Amazon
            short history

books about 3-D

selected 3-D movies
early 3-D movies
The Golden Age of 3-D
'Second Wave'
recent 3-D movies
NEW movies, coming soon

pioneers & experts

equipmentchannels

links


"Wrestling with the technology involved in getting a smooth stereoscopic 3-D image
to the eyes of a paying customer and minimizing cost is a hurdle of epic proportions."
— game blogger Hardware Canucks

"Mankind has for centuries been moving toward stereoscopic cinema."
Sergei M. Eisenstein, in 1949

H I S T O R Y
          French inventor Nicéphore Niépce [1765-1833] made the first permanent photograph from nature with a camera obscura in 1826. His successor Louis Daguerre [1787-1851] invented the daguerreotype in 1837 and took the first photograph of a human in 1839. The first practical stereoscope was invented in 1840 by British inventor Sir Charles Wheatstone. American Oliver Wendell Holmes [1809-94] designed a very popular stereoscope in 1860.
          Eadweard Muybridge [1830-1904] made a series of high-speed photographic demonstrations in 1878 in California, showing a moving horse as airborne during a trot by using a trip-wire system – to settle a bet made by railroad magnate & former Governor Leland Stanford [1824-93]. British cinematography pioneer Wm. Friese-Greene [1855-1921] built a stereoscopic motion picture camera around 1898; whether he received a patent or exhibited his short movies is unclear.

          Several anaglyphic red-green or mechanical stereoscopic 3-D systems were demonstrated to the public in the 1920s, but the technology produced poor results or the hardware was unwieldy, and none of them were commercially successful.
          Edwin H. Land [1909-91] invented and patented a polarizing sheet in 1929; he gave the first demonstration of Polaroid filters in conjunction with 3-D photography at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in January 1936; the reaction was enthusiastic, and was followed by an installation at the New York Museum of Science.

          Films in 3-D remained novelties until after World War II. With improvements in film and in camera technology, the 'Golden Age of 3-D Cinema' began with the release of "Bwana Devil" [Nov 1952], directed by Arch Oboler [1907-87] using M. L. Gunzberg's Natural Vision process. Columbia Pictures released "Man In The Dark" in April 1953, and momentum built, and patrons were drawn way from their TV sets and attendance at the movies rebounded. André De Toth [1912-2002], director of the hit 3-D movies "House of Wax" & "The Stranger Wore A Gun" [both 1953], happened to be blind in one eye, and wore an eye patch. But by 1954, the surge waned, and movies that had been filmed in 3-D were being released in 2-D prints only.
          A process called 'StereoVision' was invented in 1970 by Allan Silliphant and Chris Condon and used on 35 films in 25 years. This 'Second Golden Age of 3-D Cinema' still did not last; the only significant 3-D films of this period were "Comin' at Ya!" [1981], "Friday The 13th, Part III" [1982], and "Jaws 3-D" [1983].

T O D A Y
          Stereoscopic {3-D} Cinema finally reached mainstream acceptance with the combination of better cameras and the ability to edit and-or distribute in digital formats. Shooting a film in 3-D currently adds roughly 20% to the production budget. The very successful release of "Polar Express" [2004] made $121M on 3,500 2-D screens and $49M on only 68 3-D screens – and the motion picture industry took notice. Since 2004, nearly every 3-D release has earned 3 to 7 times more revenue in 3-D theaters than in 2-D venues.
          In 2009, both Disney & Pixar announced that they will release all their feature films with 3-D versions. A total of 8 films were released in 3-D in 2008, followed by twenty 3-D films in 2009 {per M.P.A.A. 3/2010}. Movies released in 3-D accounted for 11 percent of domestic boxoffice revenue in 2009, up from just 2 percent in 2008. About 35 feature films were scheduled for 3-D release in the U.S. in 2011, a 50% increase from 2010.
          3-D movies made $6 billion worldwide in 2010, which is 20% of box office revenue.
          However, movie attendance dropped to a 17-year low in Summer 2011, and more viewers chose 2-D tickets over higher-priced 3-D admissions for expected blockbusters "Pirates of The Caribbean" #4, "Harry Potter" #8, "Green Lantern", and "Kung Fu Panda 2".

stereoscopy entry at Wikipedia
3-D film entry at Wikipedia

If you arrived here looking for information on '3-D printing' (which has nothing to do with film),
then you should instead got to Spirit of America Bookstore's Inventors of America Page


Books  About  3-D

Foundations of the Stereoscopic Cinema book by Lenny Lipton  "Foundations of The Stereoscopic Cinema: A Study In Depth" [1982]
by Lenny Lipton

Van Nostrand Reinhold 9¼x6½ hardcover [7/82] out of print/scarce
Van Nostrand Reinhold hardcover [7/82] out of print/scarce
Amazing 3-D book by Hal Morgan & Dan Symmes  "Amazing 3-D: Gum Cards, Photos, Movies, Comics" [1982]
by Hal Morgan & Dan Symmes

Little, Brown 11x8½ pb [9/82] out of print/used
Little, Brown hardcover [9/82] out of print/used
3-D Movies History & Filmography book by R.M. Hayes  "3-D Movies: A History and Filmography of Stereoscopic Cinema" [1989]
by R.M. Hayes

McFarland & Co. 9x6 pb [10/98] for $35.95
McFarland & Co. 9½x6½ library hardcover [11/89] for $55.00
3-D Filmmakers book by Ray Zone  "3-D Filmmakers: Conversations With Creators of Stereoscopic Motion Pictures"
[2005] by Ray Zone

Scarecrow Press pb [2/2005] for $31.68
Stereoscopic Photography book by Arthur W. Judge  "Stereoscopic Photography: Its Application To Science, Industry & Education"
[orig 1926, rev 1935 & 1950, republd 2007] by Arthur W. Judge

Ghose Press 7½x5½ pb [3/2007] for $30.95
Ghose Press hardcover [11/2008] for $43.45
Stereoscopic Cinema & the Origins of 3-D Film book by Ray Zone  "Stereoscopic Cinema and The Origins of 3-D Film, 1838-1952" [2007]
by Ray Zone

Univ Press of KY 9x6¼ hardcover [11/2007] for $33.60
3D Movie Making book by Bernard Mendiburu  "3-D Movie Making: Stereoscopic Digital Cinema From Script To Screen"
[2009] by Bernard Mendiburu

Focal Press pb [5/2009] for $44.95
3-D A-to-Z Encyclopedic Dictionary book by Richard W. Kroon  "3D A-to-Z: An Encyclopedic Dictionary" [2012]
by Richard W. Kroon, Foreword by Ray Zone

Author is director of 3-D Services for Technicolor Digital Delivery Group in California
McFarland & Co. 9¾x6¾ pb [4/2012] for $75.00
3-D Revolution Stereoscopic Cinema book by Ray Zone  "3-D Revolution: The History of Modern Stereoscopic Cinema" [2012]
by Ray Zone

Kindle Edition from Univ Press of Kentucky [7/2012] for $22.80
Univ Press of Kentucky 9x6 hardcover [7/2012] for $40.00
3-D Cinema and Beyond book edited by Dan Adler, Janine Marchessault & Sanja Obradovic  "3-D Cinema and Beyond" [2014]
Edited by Dan Adler, Janine Marchessault & Sanja Obradovic

Intellect Ltd 9¾x7¾ hardcover [2/2014] for $50.00

back of package from Stereo 3D Filmmaking Interactive Course on DVD  "Stereo 3D Filmmaking: The Complete Interactive Course"
[Innoventive Software June 2010]

125 minutes of course material in French or English; 20 interactive exercises; Expert Insight with industry professionals – over 4 hours in total; includes six pairs of 3-D glasses, FrameForge Stereo 3-D Laboratory software Co-produced, written & co-directed by David Steiner; co-produced & co-directed by Cédric-Alexandre Saudinos
Parallell Cinéma color 3-D DVD-R set [10/2010] 5 disks orig $349.00 - out of prodn/scarce
boxed 5-disk version available direct from producer for $349
full credits at IMDbInnoventive / FrameForge official website

Amazon's 3-D 101 Store

Amazon's 3-D 101 Store       Amazon's 3-D 101 Store

Amazon Help Guide: How Does 3-D TV Work?

Amazon Buying Guide:
What Do You Need To Get 3-D At Home?



Selected  3-D  Movies
search on keyword '3-dimensional' {270 titles} at Internet Movie Database

jump to NEW movies, coming soon

Festival of 3-D Movie Trailers on DVD from SabuCat Productions  "Festival of 3-D Movie Trailers" on DVD [2003]
SabuCat Prodns 105-minute DVD [10/2003] for $29.95
45 trailers for 3-D movies, including 12 minutes of anaglyphic 3-D footage (red/blue glasses included!): trailers in real 3-D for "The Maze" [1953] and "It Came From Outer Space" [1953], and the famous "Train Arriving" footage shot in 3-D by Louis Lumière in 1934; extras include background & history of 3-D, posters, stills & other advertising

22 3-D Rarities from 3-D Film Archive on Blu-ray  "3-D Rarities" [3-D Film Archive 2015]
'a collection of 22 ultra-rare and stunningly-restored 3-D films, in commemoration of the centennial of 3-D motion pictures' • contains "Kelley's Plasticon Pictures" [1922], the earliest extant 3-D demonstration film, with incredible footage of Washington, DC and New York City; "Thrills For You" [1939], a promotional film for the Pennsylvania Railroad from the Worlds Fair; "New Dimensions/Motor Rhythm" [1940], the first domestic full color 3-D movie, a promotional film originally shown by Chrysler Motors at the World's Fair; "Doom Town" [1950s], a controversial anti-atomic testing film that was mysteriously pulled from release; "I'll Sell My Shirt" [1950s], a burlesque comedy unseen in 3-D for over 60 years; four 3-D animated gems by Norman McLaren – "Now Is The Time" [1951], "O Canada" [1952], "Twirligig" [1952], and "Around Is Around" [2/1953]; "Rocky Marciano vs. Jersey Joe Walcott" [5/1953], the only 3-D newsreel; "Stardust In Your Eyes" [6/1953] hilarious standup routine by Slick Slavin; trailer for William Cameron Menzies's "The Maze" [Allied Artists 7/1953]; "Boo Moon" color cartoon short [1/1954] featuring Casper the Friendly Ghost; "The Adventures of Sam Space" [Fox 9/1960] widescreen 3-D puppet cartoon; and 3-D footage from "The Bellboy and The Playgirls" [1962] directed by Francis Ford Coppola; bonus material includes: introductions by Leonard Maltin & Trustin Howard; commentary tracks by Thad Komorowski & Jack Theakston, and 3-D photo galleries • compilation credits at IMDbofficial movie websitewatch official trailer [1:35] online at Vimeo
147-minute Flicker Alley, LLC mostly-b&w compilation on Blu-ray [6/2015] for $39.64

·                                 ·

Early 3-D Movies

"The Power of Love"
[Haworth/Perfect Sept 1922 silent] in 3-D!
The earliest-known film projected in dual strip (red/green) anaglyph format and for which anaglyph glasses were used; shown at the Ambassador Hotel Theater in Los Angeles on 27 September 1922; then shown to exhibitors & press in New York City; the film had no bookings and dropped out of sight. Produced & co-directed by Harry K. Fairall; co-directed by Nat G. Deverich; cinematography by Robert F. Elder; starring Elliot Sparling, Barbara Bedford, Noah Beery, Aileen Manning, Albert Prisco & John Herdman; the film is now considered lost; full credits from IMDb

"Movies of The Future"  [1922 silent] in 3-D!
A program of two short stereoscopic {3-D} films which premiered in December 1922 at the Rivoli Theater in New York City: "Plasticons" [1922] and "New York City" [1922]; produced & directed by William Van Doren Kelley; print element status unknown; bare credits from IMDb

"The Man From M.A.R.S." aka 'Radio-Mania'
[Dec 1922 & July 1923] in Teleview 3-D
Laurens Hammond & William F. Cassidy invented a system of alternate-frame projection thru the use of two interlocked projectors; synchronized viewers attached to the arm-rests of the seats in the theater opened & closed in synch with the projector. The only theater known to have installed the Teleview system was the Selwyn Theater in New York City. Only one show was ever produced for the Teleview system, a group of shorts and this Teleview feature. The plot involves a hapless inventor who tries to contact the planet Mars by radio, then falls asleep and dreams of contact with them by television.
Directed by Roy William Neill; cinematography by George J. Folsey; starring Broadway actors Grant Mitchell & Margaret Irving
full credits from IMDbmovie entry at Wikipedia

"L'Arrivée d'un Train" [France March 1934]
Louis Lumière [1864-1948] showed a stereoscopic remake of his 1895 film short "L'Arrivée d'un Train
à La Ciotat" in anaglyphic 3-D in Paris, France; the remake is not listed at IMDb

"Pete Smith Specialties" 3-D shorts [M.G.M. 1935-41]
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios hired Jacob Leventhal & John Norling to make short films in red/blue anaglyph
by Technicolor. The first film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Novelty Short Subject; the second
film was also successful. The third, called "Third Dimensional Murder", was released in 1941.

"Audioscopiks" 8-minute 3-D short [M.G.M Dec 1935]
Produced & narrated by Pete Smith; nominated for an Academy Award for Best Novelty Short Subject;
available as bonus material on several DVD boz sets; full credits from IMDb

"The New Audioscopiks" 8-minute 3-D short [M.G.M Jan 1938]
Produced & narrated by Pete Smith; not available on DVD; full credits from IMDb

"Third Dimensional Murder" 8-minute 3-D short [M.G.M 1941]
Produced & narrated by Pete Smith; directed by George Sidney; starring Ed Payson
{as Frankenstein's monster}; not available on DVD; full credits from IMDb

"Nozze Vagabonde" aka "Beggar's Wedding"
[Italy 1936] in b&w Polaroid 3-D
Directed by Guido Brignone; written by Oreste Biancoli
not available on DVD • full credits from IMDb

"Zum Greifen Nah" aka "You Can Nearly Touch It"
[Germany] in color Polaroid 3-D
not available on DVD • bare credits from IMDb

"Sechs Mädel Rollen ins Wochenend"
aka "Six Girls Drive Into The Weekend"

[Germany 1939] in Polaroid 3-D
not available on DVD • not listed at IMDb

Chrysler Motors promos [1939-53]
The first commercial Polaroid 3-D film in the U.S.; commissioned by Chrysler for showing at the Chrysler Motor Pavilion at the 1939 New York World's Fair, under the title "In Tune With Tomorrow", the 15-minute short depicted a full 1939 Chrysler Plymouth being magically put together (in stop-motion), set to music. It was so popular that Chrysler commissioned a color remake for the second year of the fair, under the title "New Dimensions"; the color version was released theatrically by R.K.O. in 1953 as "Motor Rhythm"

"In Tune With Tomorrow"
b&w Polaroid 3-D short [1939]
Written & directed by John Norling; not available on DVD; bare credits at IMDb

"New Dimensions"
color Polaroid 3-D short [1940; re-release 1953]
Written & directed by John Norling; not available on DVD; bare credits at IMDb


The Golden Age of 3-D Movies
The 'Golden Age' of 3-D was a very brief time, mostly in the year 1953, with a few stragglers released in 1954,
and almost none in 1955. Neither did the 'Second Wave' attempted 3-D revival in the early 1980s catch on.

·                ·

"Radar Men From The Moon"
12-chapter serial [Republic Pictures Jan 1952]
This 12-episode Saturday serial was NOT filmed in 3-D; the DVD release from SlingShot
in 2002 merely has hokey 3-D effects stock footage added!

info available on Magic Lantern's Silent & Sound Movie Serials Pages

"Bwana Devil" filmed in Natural Vision 3-D
[United Artists Nov 1952]
Bwana Devil color stereoscopic 3-D movie directed by Arch Oboler  The first color stereoscopic 3-D feature film - "A lion in your lap! A lover in your arms!"
Two man-eating lions are attacking workers building a railroad in Africa. • Co-produced, written & directed by Arch Oboler; starring Robert Stack, Barbara Britton and Nigel Bruce
24"x36" poster from Amazon for $19.99 (plus 2 other sizes)
not available on DVD; full credits at IMDb

"Stereo Techniques" 3-D compilation [Dec 1952]
New York producer Sol Lesser premiered this dual-strip 3-D showcase in Chicago, a compilation of five 3-D shorts

"Now Is The Time (To Put On Your Glasses)"
[Canada 1951, USA 1952]
3-minute color animated short in 3-D; co-produced & directed by Norman McLaren;
not available on DVD; bare credits from IMDb

"Around Is Around" [Canada 1951, USA 1952]
10-minute Technicolor animated short in 3-D; co-produced & co-directed
by Norman McLaren & Evelyn Lambart; not available on DVD; credits from IMDb

The other three short 3-D films {not listed at IMDb} were produced by Raymond Spottiswoode for the
Festival of Britain in 1951; the titles were "A Solid Explanation", "Royal River", and "The Black Swan"

"Cavalleria Rusticana" aka "Fatal Desire"
opera movie in 3-D [indep 1953, USA Jan 1963]
starring May Britt, 'Kerima' & Anthony Quinn • video/DVD/Blu-ray not available • full credits at IMDb
movie entry at Wikipediaopera entry at Wikipedia

"Man In The Dark" [Columbia April 1953]
Man In The Dark 1953 movie in 3-D  Filmed in 3-D; a convicted robber undergoes experimental brain surgery to remove his 'criminal tendencies'; when released from prison, members of his former gang kidnap him to get him to reveal the location of the hidden loot from their last robbery – but he can't remember. Torture by the gang triggers strange dreams that reveal pieces of the missing info, leading to a climax on the wooden roller coaster at a beachside amusement park (Pacific Ocean Park in Santa Monica, California). Directed by Lew Landers; starring Edmond O'Brien, Audrey Totter, Ted de Corsia & Horace McMahon • not available on DVD (2017)
Twilight Time Region 1 Limited Edition 3-D Blu-ray [1/2014] for $35.79
full credits at IMDbmovie entry at Wikipedia

"House of Wax" [Warner Bros. April 1953]
House of Wax movie in 3-D (white poster) starring Vincent Price  
House of Wax movie in 3-D (blue poster) starring Vincent Price  
The first major motion picture with stereophonic sound was "This Is Cinerama" [Sept 1952]; it was still playing only in New York City when "House of Wax" opened, and thus for most moviegoers across America this horror film in 3-D was their first experience of stereo sound at the movies. A sculptor of figures for an unsuccessful wax museum is horrified when his partner proposes setting the place on fire to collect the insurance money; the two men fight and the sculptor is knocked out and left to perish in the blaze. He turns up some years later, with a new wax museum, but the sculptor's behavior is making his new assistant suspicious. Directed by André De Toth; starring Vincent Price, Frank Lovejoy, Phyllis Kirk, Carolyn Jones, Paul Picerni, Roy Roberts, Angela Clarke, Paul Cavanagh, Dabbs Greer & Charles Bronson; at end of 2011, holds #92 box office ranking, at 50,531,900 tickets
Warner Home Video widescreen color on Blu-ray [9/2006] for $8.49
Warner Home Video widescreen color DVD [10/2005] for $4.48
Warner Home Video color DVD [8/2003] for $8.67
Warner Home Video color VHS [7/98] for $4.25
white 11"x17" poster (at left, above) from Amazon third party for $8.49
blue 27"x40" poster (at left, below) from Amazon third party for $17.99
full credits at IMDbmovie entry at Wikipedia

"Fort Ti" [Esskay/Columbia May 1953]
Fort Ti 3-D movie poster directed by William Castle, starring George Montgomery   Billed as 'the first 3-D Western', but that only works if you agree that upstate New York in 1758 was the West! During the French & Indian War [1754-63], American frontiersmen and British soldiers fight to rescue hostages and take the French-built Fort Ticonderoga, said to be impregnible. Directed by William Castle; written by Robert E. Kent; starring George Montgomery, Joan Vohs, Irving Bacon, James Seay, Ben Astar, Phyllis Fowler & Howard Petrie
not available on DVD; full credits at IMDb

"It Came From Outer Space" in 3D! [Universal June 1953]
It Came From Outer Space video  A fireball goes down near an abandoned mine outside a small town; locals begin disappearing and then return, seeming strangely altered; one of the townsmen sneaks aboard the spaceship seeking peace, while the sheriff goes into the mine with an armed posse. Directed by Jack Arnold; screenplay by Harry Essex, based on a story treatment by Ray Bradbury; starring Richard Carlson, Barbara Rush, Charles Drake, Joe Sawyer, Russell Johnson & Kathleen Hughes
Universal Studios b&w DVD [5/2002] for $8.49
Universal b&w VHS [4/97] out of prodn/many used
full credits from IMDbmovie entry at Wikipedia

"Second Chance" [R.K.O. Radio Pictures July 1953]
Second Chance 1953 Technicolor movie in 3-D  Filmed in Mexico; a young beauty flees south of the border to avoid testifying against her mobster boy-friend; the hired killer sent after her promises to spare her life if she will run away with him; an Ameri-can prizefighter tries to help her; the finale is on a cable car high in the sky. Produced by Howard Hughes; directed by Rudolph Maté; starring Robert Mitchum, Linda Darnell & Jack Palance
not available on DVD; Nostalgia Merchant Technicolor VHS [undated] out of prodn/used
full credits at IMDbmovie entry at Wikipedia

"The Three Stooges" in 3-D
Of their 190 short films made between 1933 and 1957, the Three Stooges made only two in
stereoscopic {3-D} format; both are available on the "Three Stooges Collection, Volume 7" DVD

Magic Lantern's 'The Three Stooges' Page

Pardon My Backfire 1953 short film in 3-D starring The Three Stooges {poster retail source not found}  
Three Stooges Collection 7, shorts 1952-54 on DVD  
"Spooks!" short film in 3-D! [Columbia June 1953]
Three private detectives are hired to find a missing girl; the trail leads to a mad scientist's creepy old house and a gorilla, who helps rescue the girl. Produced & directed by Jules White; starring 'Three Stooges' Moe & Larry & Shemp, with Philip Van Zandt, Tom Kennedy & Norma Randall
full credits from IMDb
"Pardon My Backfire" short film in 3-D! [Columbia Aug 1953]
Three auto mechanics capture a gang of escaped convicts and use the reward money to marry their sweethearts. Produced & directed by Jules White; starring 'Three Stooges' Moe & Larry & Shemp
full credits from IMDb

"Volume Seven: 1952-1954" [2009]
22 digitally-remastered shorts in order of release; with two in original 3-D! (glasses included)
Starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine & Shemp Howard
Sony b&w DVD [11/2009] 2 disks for $20.99

"The Stranger Wore A Gun" [Columbia Aug 1953]
'The Stranger Wore A Gun' Western movie starring Randolph Scott  poster for 3-D version of 'The Stranger Wore A Gun' Western movie starring Randolph Scott  Filmed in 3-D, but released only in 'flat' 2-D prints; a Confederate Army veteran flees to Arizona, hoping to hide his past as a spy for Quantrill's Raiders, and gets a job guarding shipments on a stage line. Co-produced by Harry Joe Brown & Randolph Scott; directed by André De Toth; script by Kenneth Gamet, based on a short story by John W. Cunningham; starring Randolph Scott, Claire Trevor, Joan Weldon, George Macready, Alfonso Bedoya, Lee Marvin & Ernest Borgnine
Sony b&w DVD [9/2005] for $7.99
Sony b&w VHS [6/98] out of prodn/used
full credits at IMDbmovie entry at Wikipedia

"Inferno" [Fox Aug 1953]
Inferno 1953 movie in 3-D starring Robert Ryan & Rhonda Fleming  A selfish millionaire businessman falls off his horse in the desert and breaks his leg, and his scheming wife and her lover leave him there to die; excellent use of 3-D enhances the sense of the lone castaway in a vast and empty space. Directed by Roy Ward Baker; written by Francis M. Cockrell; Technicolor cinematography by Lucien Ballard; starring Robert Ryan, Rhonda Fleming, William Lundigan, Larry Keating, Henry Hull, Carl Betz & Robert Burton
DVD/Blu-ray not available; full credits from IMDbmovie entry at Wikipedia

"Cat-Women of The Moon"
[Astor Pictures Sept 1953] /tt0045609/

"Popeye, The Ace of Space" cartoon short in 3-D
[Famous Studios/Paramount Pictures Oct 1953]
poster for 'Popeye, the Ace of Space' 1953 cartoon short in 3-D  Popeye is captured by Martians who conduct bizarre tests on him; luckily he has four
cans of spinach . . .
Co-produced & directed by Seymour Kneitel; written by Jack
Mercer & Carl Meyer; voices of Jack Mercer, Jackson Beck & Sid Raymond
not available on individual DVD nor on collections above (2015)
a fully-restored 3-D print is in circulation for screening at 3-D film events
full credits at IMDb

"Gun Fury" [Columbia Oct 1953]
Directed by Raoul Walsh; filmed in 3-D; based on the novel "Ten Against Caesar"; starring Rock Hudson, Donna Reed,
Philip Carey, Roberta Haynes, Leo Gordon, Lee Marvin, Neville Brand & Ray Thomas; full credits from IMDb

"Hondo" [Warner Nov 1953]
Hondo movie directed by John Farrow, starring John Wayne  
Hondo novel by Louis L'Amour  
Filmed in WarnerVision dual-strip 3-D, released as 2-D 'flat' prints; shown once on network TV in real 3-D; directed by John Farrow; based on Louis L'Amour's first novel; starring John Wayne, Geraldine Page, Ward Bond & James Arness; Oscar noms for Best Script & Best Supporting Actress (GP)
Paramount color DVD [10/2005] for $10.99
MPI Home Video color VHS [9/94] out of prodn/many used
full credits from IMDb
"Hondo" posters at AllPosters.com

"Hondo" aka 'The Gift of Cochise' [Louis L'Amour's first novel; 1952]
Bantam pb [6/91] for $4.50

"The Glass Web" [Universal Nov 1953] /tt0045825/

Cole Porter's "Kiss Me Kate" [M.G.M. Nov 1953]
starring Howard Keel, Kathryn Grayson & Ann Miller; full credits from IMDb

"The French Line" [R.K.O. Radio Pictures Dec 1953]
Starring Jane Russell & Gilbert Roland /tt0047000/

"Money From Home" [Paramount Dec 1953]
Money From Home movie starring Martin & Lewis  Filmed in three-strip Technicolor™ and in 3-D; suave Herman is in trouble with the mob over his gambling debts, so he enlists his geeky and animal-loving cousin to fix a horse race. Produced by Hal B. Wallis; directed by George Marshall; written by Hal Kanter & James B. Allardice, based on a story by Damon Runyon; starring Dean Martin & Jerry Lewis, Marjie Millar, Pat Crowley, Richard Haydn, Robert Strauss, Gerald Mohr, Sheldon Leonard, Romo Vincent, Jack Kruschen
Legend Films widescreen color DVD [7/2008] for $12.35
full credits at IMDbmovie entry at Wikipedia

"Taza, Son of Cochise" [Universal Feb 1954]
Directed by Douglas Sirk; starring Rock Hudson /tt0047562/

"Jivaro" [Paramount Feb 1954] /tt0047133/
starring Fernando Lamas & Rhonda Fleming

"Creature From The Black Lagoon"
[Universal March 1954]

"Jesse James vs. The Daltons" [Columbia April 1954] /tt0047129/

"Dial M For Murder"  [Warner Bros. May 1954[
originally filmed in 3-D by Alfred Hitchcock + http://us.imdb.com/title/tt0046912/

"Son of Sinbad" [R.K.O. Radio Pictures May 1955] /tt0048642/
starring Dale Robertson, Sally Forrest, Lili St. Cyr, Vincent Price & Mari Blanchard

"Gog" in 3-D [United Artists June 1954]
Gog 1954 robots movie in 3-D  Filmed in EastmanColor and NaturalVision 3-D in California (at George Air Force Base in Victorville, at U.S.C in Los Angeles, and at Hal Roach Studios in Culver City); one of the last 3-D films of the Golden Age, most prints were 2-D. A security agent arrives at a secret underground space research base to investigate possible sabotage. Scientists working on induced hibernation for space travel have been killed, apparently by two experimental robots acting independently, but then he discovers that the whole base is coordinated by a supercomputer and there is a strange aircraft circling high over-head . . . Produced & co-written by Ivan Tors; directed by Herbert L. Strock; co-written by Tom Taggart & Richard G. Taylor; starring Richard Egan, Constance Dowling, Herbert Marshall, Billy Curtis {as Gog & Magog}, John Wengraf, Philip Van Zandt, Valerie Vernon, Stephen Roberts, Byron Kane, David Alpert, Michael Fox, William Schallert, Marian Richman, Jean Dean, Tom Daly
Kino Lorber 3-D color Blu-ray [3/2016] for $17.99  3/2016
M.G.M. Home Video 2-D color DVD [11/2011] for $18.12
full credits at IMDbmovie entry at Wikipedia

'Second Wave' Attempted 3-D Revival

"3-D Jamboree" at Disneyland California 1956-1964
A program of two color 3-D Disney shorts, hosted onscreen by the Mousketeers,
shown at Disneyland's Fantasyland Theater from June 1956 to 1964

"3-D Jamboree" [1956 short]
'frame' footage directed by William Beaudine, starring Jimmie Dodd & Annette Funicello;
not available on DVD; credits from IMDb

"Melody" 10-minute 3-D animated short [Disney/R.K.O. May 1953]
Directed by Ward Kimball & Charles A. Nichols; available on Disney Treasures DVD Series; credits at IMDb

"Working For Peanuts" 7-minute 3-D cartoon [Disney/R.K.O. Nov 1953]
Directed by Jack Hannah; starring Donald Duck & Chip 'n' Dale;
available on Disney Treasures DVD Series; credits at IMDb

"The Mask" [1961]

"The Stewardesses" [1969] /tt0168192/

"Flesh For Frankenstein" [1973]
by Andy Warhol & Paul Morrissey, in Stereovision format

"Black Lolita" aka 'Wildcat Women' [1975] /tt0072708/

"Comin' At Ya!" [1981] /tt0082193/
http://www.amazon.com/Comin-At-Ya-Tony-Anthony/dp/6305564345/

"The Man Who Wasn't There" [1983] /tt0085892/

"Jaws 3-D" [1983] /tt0085750/

"Tales of The Third Dimension" [1984]
http://us.imdb.com/title/tt0141880/ Horror anthology 3-D


'Third Wave' Recent 3-D Movies
These films are not to be confused with animated 'three-dimensional' C.G.I. releases that are merely painted
with very visible shaping and shadows (an improvement over old-style 'flat' 2-D cartoons). Each of the films
included below was released in stereoscopic 3-D, usually with glasses provided and a much higher ticket price.

·                ·

"Greatest Roller Coaster Thrills in 3-D"
[Telemedia Prodns 1994 & 1996]
America's Greatest Roller Coaster Thrills in 3-D, Volume 1  "America's Greatest Roller Coaster Thrills, Volume 1": 14 rides: Montu in FL; The Raven in IN; Wild Thing in MN; Timberwolf in Kansas City, Missouri; The Great Nor'Easter and The Great White in NJ; Stratosphere High Roller in Las Vegas, NV; The Comet in NY; Mantis in OH; 1921 Jack Rabbit and The Phoenix in PA; and Grizzly and Loch Ness Monster and 'Outer Limits Flight of Fear' in VA
co-produced, written & directed by Ned Rodgers; hosted by Eric Boardman & Lisa Williams
Image Ent. color DVD [5/98] out of prodn/used
Goldhil Home Media color VHS [11/99] out of prodn/many used
full credits at IMDb

America's Greatest Roller Coaster Thrills in 3-D, Volume 2   "America's Greatest Roller Coaster Thrills, Volume 2": 16 rides, including Wild Thing in MN; Stratosphere High Roller in Las Vegas, NV; and the 1921 Jack Rabbit in PA
co-produced, written & directed by Ned Rodgers; hosted by Eric Boardman & Lisa Williams
Image Ent. color DVD [9/98] out of prodn/used
Goldhil Home Media color VHS [11/99] out of prodn/used
full credits at IMDb
World's Greatest Roller Coaster Thrills in 3-D  "The World's Greatest Roller Coaster Thrills": ?? rides, including Spain's 8-loop Dragon Khan, Germany's traveling Olympic Looping Ban, and England's Pepsi Max
co-produced, written & directed by Ned Rodgers; hosted by Eric Boardman & Lisa Williams
Image Ent. color DVD [5/98] out of prodn/used
not listed at IMDb

"Marvin The Martian In The Third Dimension"
[1996 cartoon short] /tt0116998/

"Trinity and Beyond: The Atomic Bomb Movie"
[indep video release Sept 1995]
Trinity & Beyond   Partly filmed in 3-D; co-produced & directed by Peter Kuran; narrated by William Shatner
V.C.E. color/3D DVD [10/2006] for $16.99
V.C.E. color/3D DVD [1/2000] for $24.95
Goldhil Home Media color VHS [11/99] out of prodn/used
full credits from IMDb

"Ghosts of The Abyss" [2003]
James Cameron's 3-D documentary tour of the Titanic wreckage lay the foundation for the technology
used in "The Polar Express" [2004] and for Cameron's own later "Avatar" [2009]

"3D: A Brief History" [video release Sept 2004]
7-minute short, available only on the DVD for Hitchcock's 1954 "Dial M For Murder"
Warner Home Video color DVD [9/2004] for $8.49 (the disk contents are NOT in 3-D, however);
credits from IMDb

"The  Polar  Express" animated feature in Imax 3-D format
[Castle Rock/Warner Nov 2004]
Polar Express movie  

Polar Express book  

A boy travels to the North Pole on the Polar Express and is chosen to receive the first gift of Christmas. He asks for a silver bell from Santa's reindeer, but on the way home the bell is lost through a hole in the pocket of his robe...
Co-written & directed by Robert Zemeckis; based on the book by Chris Van Allsburg; several voices by Tom Hanks; nominated for 3 minor Oscars
Warner Home Video color widescreen Blu-ray [10/2008] for $23.99 presented in 3-D
Warner Home Video color widescreen on Blu-ray [10/2007] for $17.99
Warner widescreen color DVD [11/2005] 2 disks - out of prodn/used
Warner widescreen color DVD [11/2005] for $17.99
Warner Home Video color DVD [11/2005] for $13.99
Warner color VHS [11/2005] out of prodn/used
WEA/Reprise soundtrack CD [11/2004] for $13.98
full credits from IMDbofficial movie site
"Polar Express" posters at AllPosters.com
see also the Railroad Film Festival Page at Spirit of America

"The Polar Express" book [1985] by Chris Van Allsburg
Houghton Mifflin gift set: book + CD + tape [9/2004] for $16.50
Houghton Mifflin 9½x11½ YA hardcover [10/85] for $12.89

"Night of the Living Dead 3-D" (2006) /tt0489244/

"Beowulf" [2007] filmed in Imax 3-D
http://www.amazon.com/Beowulf-Ray-Winstone/dp/B0011NVC98/

"Coraline" [Feb 2009]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coraline_(film)

"Under The Sea 3-D" (2009 documentary] /tt1020876/

"Harry Potter and The Half-Blood Prince" in 3-D [July 2009]
details on Magic Lantern's 'Harry Potter' Books & Movies Page

"Avatar" [Fox Dec 2009] /tt0499549/
James Cameron’s “Avatar” returned to movie theaters in August 2010, with eight minutes of never-before-seen footage, exclusively in Digital 3-D and IMAX 3-D. Announced 4/2012: Producer Jon Landau says that the eagerly-anticipated sequel "Avatar 2" is delayed until at least 2015, and "Avatar 3" will follow in 2016.
UPDATE 3/2016: IMDB now lists three sequels: "Avatar 2" [Dec 2016] credits"Avatar 3" [Dec 2018] credits"Avatar 4" [2019] credits

Tim Burton's "Alice In Wonderland"
IMAX & 3-D feature film [Disney March 2010]
Tim Burton's Alice In Wonderland 2010 movie from Disney  Classic story elements in a new tale of the adult Alice returning to Wonderland, in Burton's usual dark style. Co-produced & directed by Tim Burton; script by Linda Woolverton; original music by Danny Elfman; starring Mia Wasikowska, Johnny Depp, Helena Bonham Carter, Anne Hathaway, Crispin Glover & Matt Lucas, and voices of Michael Sheen, Christopher Lee, Alan Rickman, Stephen Fry, Timothy Spall, Paul Whitehouse & Noah Taylor; Blu-ray extras include 12 featurettes
Walt Disney Home Ent. widescreen color Blu-ray+DVD+digital [6/2010] 3-disk combo for $24.99
Walt Disney Pictures widescreen color Blu-ray [6/2010] for $19.99
Walt Disney Pictures widescreen color DVD [6/2010] for $16.99
full credits at IMDbmovie entry at Wikipediaofficial movie site

more details (synopses, sequels, Broadway musicals, books & ebooks, links, merchandise) on
Spirit of America Bookstore's "Alice In Wonderland" Books, Stageplays & Movies Page

"Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1" in 3-D [Nov 2010]

"Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2" in 3-D [July 2011]
details on Magic Lantern's 'Harry Potter' Movies Page

"Sex and Zen: Extreme Ecstasy" in 3-D [Asia April 2011]
A soft-core smash in Asia & Australia, “the world’s first 3-D erotic film”; to be released in USA by China Lion.
Passion and disappointment in Ming Dynasty China, based on the 1657 novel "The Carnal Prayer Mat" by
Li Yu [1610-70] • DVD/Blu-ray not yet available • full credits at IMDbofficial movie site

"The Lion King 3-D" reissued in 3-D [Disney ?? 2011]
http://disney.go.com/lionking/

"Hugo" [Warner Bros. Nov 2011]
Hugo 2011 movie from Martin Scorsese  Live-action adventure in 3-D based on Brian Selznick’s bestselling 2007 book; filmed in U.K. & in Paris, France
Co-produced & directed by Martin Scorsese; script by John Logan; starring Asa Butterfield, Ben Kingsley {as cinema pioneer Georges Méliès}, Sacha Baron Cohen, Chloe Grace Moretz, Helen McCrory, Jude Law, Christopher Lee, Emily Mortimer, Frances de la Tour, Richard Griffiths & Michael Stuhlbarg, with archive footage enhanced for 3-D of Charles Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, Buster Keaton, Harold Lloyd & Georges Méliès; received 11 Oscar nomina-tions: won for Best Art Direction, Best Cinematography, Best Sound Editing, Best Sound Mixing & Best Visual Effects; nominatited for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Original Music Score, Best Costume Design & Best Film Editing; also won A.F.I. Movie of The Year, Art Directors Guild Excellence in Production Design Award, two BAFTA Film Awards (and 7 other BAFTA noms), National Board of Review Awards for Best Director & Best Film, Satellite Award for Best Visual Effects, three Visual Effects Society Awards
Paramount 3-D Three-Disk Combo w/s color Blu-ray/DVD/digital bundle [2/2012] for $27.99
Paramount Two-Disk Combo widescreen color Blu-ray/DVD/digital bundle [2/2012] for $21.99
Paramount Studios widescreen color DVD [2/2012] for $15.49
full credits at IMDbofficial movie sitemovie entry at Wikipedia

Invention of Hugo Cabret children's book by Brian Selznick  "The Invention of Hugo Cabret" [ages 9-12; 2007 bestseller]  PURPLE CHECK: listed on Amazon Editors '100 Children's Books To Read In A Lifetime' in August 2014  
by Brian Selznick

An orphan boy surviving inside a Paris, France railroad station meets an
eccentric girl and a bitter old man, putting the boy's most precious secret
in jeopardy; book won the 2008 Caldecott Medal

Scholastic Press 8¼x6 hardcover [1/2007] for $13.72
official book sitebook entry at Wikipedia

Pioneers & Experts

Victoria (Vicky) Condon-Silliphant
of Stereo Vision Systems [est. 1971] in Vista, CA (VickySill3D @ yahoo.com)

Milton Gunzburg [1910-91]
IMDb listingno entry at Wikipedia

Laurens Hammond [1895-1973]
IMDb listingWikipedia
article on Hammond's 3-D machinery/patents

Lenny Lipton
browse books {mostly out of print}IMDb listingofficial websiteWikipedia


3-D Equipment
American Paper Optics [est. 1990] 3-D glasses online
Fun and Funky 3-D Glasses {black plastic frame, red & blue lenses) for $8.00 at Amazon
Ted Pella, Inc. [est. 1968] stereo glasses, stereo scopes, stereo viewers
All About 3-D TV info site


After his wife complained of headaches from 3-D movies, Hank Green discovered that ten percent of Americans
experience discomfort - whether it's nausea, motion sickness, or headaches - while watching big-screen 3-D movies.
He contacted manufacturers of 3-D glasses and they said that they were able to put the 3-D image back into a 2-D image.
He ordered 5,000 of these 2-D reversal glasses and now sells them both individually and in bulk on-line.

official websiteRealD version available at Amazon for $7.99


logo for D3D Cinema [est. 2009] of Evanston, Illinois    D3D Cinema provides a range of digital 3-D services and equipment
from their headquarters in Chicago/Evanston, Illinois
official website • no entry at Wikipedia


DepthQ® Stereoscopic HD 3D Video Projector (distributed by LightspeeD Design)


Fujifilm logo    
Fujifilm Finepix cameras in several colors    
Fujifilm FinePix Real 3-D stereoscopic digital stereoscopic cameras
listed among TIME Magazine's 50 Best Inventions, November 2009
Fujifilm FinePix Real 3D W3 Digital Camera with 3.5-inch LCD
camera, with lithium-ion battery included [8/2010] for $225.24 {USA only}
Fujifilm FinePix Real 3D W3 Digital Camera Bundle: with 16GB memory
card, camera case, charger, tripod, spare lithium-ion battery

camera & accessories (9 pieces) for $258.39
Fujifilm FinePix Real 3D W3 Essential Accessories Kit: camera case,
6-foot HDMI cable for TV screen hookup, five free lenticular prints

Fuji accessories for $33.43
Fujifilm NP-50 Rechargeable Battery for FinePix Digital Cameras
Fuji brand lithium-ion battery for $11.99

Fujifilm FinePix Real 3-D W1 Dual 10MP Digital Camera with 3x Optical Zoom and 2.8-inch LCD
camera, with lithium ion battery included [11/2005] for $899.99 {USA + some non-USA}


Nintendo 3DS game player {not yet on Amazon}
will launch 27 March 2011 with 18 available games

nVIDIA visual computing technologies

Panavision 3-D projection system logo
Panavision 3-D projection system [launched Fall 2010]

Royal Philips autostereoscopic displays / 3d Solutions FAQ Page

Silicon Imaging SI-3D integrated 3D camera & playback system [unveiled 4/2009]


wireless synchronized shutter 3-D 'i-glasses' from H3D  The H3D Theater 3-D Viewing System from SlingShot Entertainment is hardware for sequential field stereoscopic {3-D) movies, using synchronized shutter 'i-glasses' worn by the viewer. The reviews on Amazon seem to indicate that the system will work with IMAX and other formats on DVD. The video content included on these two box sets is low-budget, amateur camcorder material – basically cheap demo videos.
Ultimate 3-D Horror Collection DVD box set  "The Ultimate 3-D Horror Collection" with 3-D home viewing system [2002]
includes "Camp Blood" [1999] written & directed by Brad Sykes; "Hunting Season" [2000] co-written & directed by Jeff Leroy; and "The Zombie Chronicles" [2001] directed by Brad Sykes
SlingShot Ent. DVD [9/2002] 3 disks & hardware - out of prodn/scarce
hardware includes 2 pairs of wired high performance 3-D shutter glasses, video synchronization controller, video cable, power supply & instruction manual
Ultimate 3-D Collection DVD box set  "The Ultimate 3-D Collection" with 3-D home viewing system [2001]
includes "Encounter In The Third Dimension" [1999] hour-long partly-3D promo featuring Elvira; "Alien Adventure" [1999] 35-minute sci-fi comedy; and "Haunted Castle" [2001] 38-minute IMAX gothic rock film – all from nWave Pictures and co-produced, written & directed by Ben Stassen
SlingShot Ent.[10/2001] disks & hardware - out of prodn/scarce
hardware includes 2 pairs of wired high performance 3-D shutter glasses, video synchronization controller, video cable, power supply & instruction manual
Encounter In The Third Dimension  "Encounter In The Third Dimension" [1999]
57-minute partly-3D promo/demo featuring Elvira, Mistress of The Dark; "originally presented in IMAX® theaters"
SlingShot Ent. b&w/color DVD [10/2001] for $5.95
full credits at IMDb

3-D Channels
High-definition 3-D television is still rare around the world; fully-programmed 24-hour channels do not
yet exist – the channel may be 24 hours each day, but the content is only sporadically shown in 3-D.

latest info at Wikipedia

Comcast’s Xfinity 3D channel [launched February 2011]
24-hour programming will focus on concerts, sporting events, movies & original shows; the Xfinity 3D
On Demand for-fee service operates thru H.B.O., making available streaming of recent 3-D feature films.
no separate website • entry at Wikipedia

3net [launched February 2011]
A joint venture of Discovery Communications, Sony Corp. & IMAX Corp.; the first carrier is DirecTV. The new
channel intends to become "the largest library of native 3-D entertainment content in the world by the end of 2011".
official websiteentry at Wikipedia


Image  Gallery

poster for 'Bwana Devil' 1952 movie that explains how Natural Vision 3-D works
available as 27"x40" (landscape) poster [undated] for $16.48 at Amazon
available as 27"x40" (landscape) poster [undated] for $16.48 at Amazon


Stereoscopic {3-D} Cinema Links
International 3D Society [est. 2010] of Los Angeles, CA
World 3D Film Expo I Schedule [Sept 2003]
Dan's 3-D Moving Pictures history website
World 3D Film Expo II [Sept 2006]
3-D Film Preservation Fund
The World of 3-D Imaging [est. 1996]
SlingShot Entertainment [est. 1998]
LightspeeD Design [est. 1993] of Bellevue, Washington
The Stereo Vision Project optometric health & therapy site [est. 1996]
StereoVision Imaging, Inc. [est. 2000] of Altadena, CA
Stereo Vision {3-D} fansite in Netherlands {heavy Flash}
Stereoscopic Displays & Applications Conference [Jan 2010 = #15] in San Jose, CA
SD&A's Virtual Library
Society For Imaging Technology & Science [est. 1947] based in Virginia
S.P.I.E. [est. 1955 as Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers] based in Bellingham, WA
Stereoscopy News weekly ezine [est. 8/2009]
Third: The 3-D Industry Magazine weblog [est. 10/2009]

Purveyors of Stereoscopic {3-D} Products {Retail}
Dan's Dimension 3 [est. 1971] based in Southern California
Reel 3-D Enterprises [1978-2004] based in Culver City, California  »»  referral list
Razor 3-D [est. 2000] of Menlo Park, California
Ultimate 3D Heaven
3-D Video Playback Equipment {last update 2001?} based in Germany

Commercial Stereoscopic {3-D} Technology
In-Three [est. 2004] purchased by Wyndcrest/Digital Domain in Nov 2010
Legend 3D [est. 2000] 2D-to-3D conversion in San Diego, California
Prime Focus Group of India
RealD Cinema 'the global leader in 3-D technology'
Samtani StereoVision 3-D [est. 1975] of India

Producers of 3-D Movies & TV
Victoria Silliphant of Stereo Vision Systems [est. 1971] in Vista, CA
nWave Pictures [est. 1994] of Belgium
StereoVision Entertainment of Van Nuys, California
REZN8 Productions [est. 1987 under StereoVision Ent., IPO planned 2013] in Santa Monica, California
3-D Film Factory [est. 2008] of San Diego, California


here on the Stereoscopic {3-D} Cinema Page at Magic Lantern Video & Book Store

top of pageshort historybooks about 3-Dselected 3-D moviespioneers & expertsequipmentchannelslinks

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